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The holy prophet muhammad (p.b.u.h.) the best of all creation

 The holy prophet muhammad (p.b.u.h.) the best of all creation

Character and Conduct of Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)
(Source: Ihya-Ulum-Id-Din by Imam Ghazzali (r.a.) Revival of Religious Learnings-
English Translation by Fazlul Karim Publisher Darul-Ishaat Karachi Pakistan)
DATE: 450-505 (A.H.) 1058 -1111 A.D.

All praise is due to Allah who created the universe and taught. His greatest Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) (peace be upon Him) the best good manners, purified his character and conduct and adopted him as His friend. He gives grace to follow the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) to one who wishes to make his character and conduct beautiful. He deprives one to follow whom he wishes to destroy. Open good conduct is the fountain of secret good conduct. The movements of the bodily limbs are the results of thoughts of mind and the external actions are the result of character and conduct. To make efforts in recognizing Allah and the acquisition of wonderful secret powers are the fountains of actions.

The light of this secret power is expressed outwardly and makes the body beautiful and gives rise to good attributes after removing evils. The man who has got, not fear in mind, has got not fear expressed in his bodily limbs. The beauty of the conduct of prophethood is not expressed in a man whose mind is not illumined with the light of Allah. I intended to gather together in this chapter the ways of the life of his ways in the first and second parts of this book. I do not wish to repeat them here.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Learning Through the Quran

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) used to invoke and pray to the Almighty Allah to grant him good manners and good treatment with the people and to adorn him with good character and conduct. He use to say in his invocation: “O Allah, make my constitution and conduct good. He used to pray: O Allah, save me from bad character and conduct. Acceptance of his prayer is seen in the following verse. Invoke me, I will respond to you 2:186. Allah revealed the Quran on him and through it He taught him good manners. His character is the Quran. Sa’ad (Radihiallaho Anho) reported: Once I went to Ayesha (Radihiallaho Anha) and her father and asked them about the character and conduct of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) to which Ayesha (Radihiallaho Anho) replied: Don’t you read the Quran? I said: Yes. She said: The character of the Messenger of Allah is the Quran. His conduct is expressed in the following verse:

Take to pardon, enjoin good and turn away from the illiterate.
Allah says: Allah enjoins justice, kindness, giving charity to the relatives and prohibits indecencies, evils and rebellion -16:90.
Have patience at the disasters that befall on you. It is a difficult task. It is difficult to have patience and to forgive.
Allah says: Pardon and forgive them. Allah loves the doers of good. Allah says: Don’t you like that Allah should forgive you?
Allah says: Remove evil with what is good, as a result the enmity that exists between you and him will be removed and he will become your friend.
Allah says: Those who appease their wrath, those who pardon people, Allah loves the doers of good.
Allah says: Give up conjectures in most cases, as some conjecture is sin. Don’t spy and don’t back-bite one another.
In the battle of Uhud, when the cover of the head of the Prophet fell down and he became separated from his companions, blood was oozing out from his face and he said wiping his blood: How will the people get salvation who dyed the face of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) with blood while he calls them towards their Lord? Then Allah revealed this verse:
“‘You have got no hand in the matter. This was only for teaching him good manners.

The verse concerning the teaching of good manners to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) are many in the Quran. It was the first object of Allah to teach the Prophet good manners and good character and conduct. For this reason, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: I have been sent to completed good conduct. Allah praised the character of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) by saying! You are surely on sublime character. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) explained it to the people: Allah loves good character, hates bad character.

Ali (Radhiallahho Anho) said: I wonder for a Muslim who does not do benefit to his brother Muslim who stands in need of it. If he hopes for rewards and fears punishment, he should hasten towards good conduct as it shows the path of salvation.

A man asked Ali (Radhiallahho Anho): Have you heard it from the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)? He said: Yes, I have heard better advice from him. When the prisoners of the tribe of Hatem Tai were brought to him, a girl came to him out of them and said: O Muhammad, if you wish, release me, but don’t dishonour me before the tribe of the Arabs. I am the daughter of the leader of my people and my father was the caretaker of my people. He used to set free the captives, feed the hungry, spread peace and did never return any beggar at the time of his need. I am the daughter of Hatem Tai. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: O girl, what you have mentioned about his qualities are the attributes of a believer. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to his companions. Let her be free as her father lewd good character and conduct.

Abu Burdah-b-Niyar stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah, does Allah love good conduct? The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) replied: By One in whose hand there is my life, None shall enter paradise except one who has got good conduct.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Allah adorned Islam with good character and beautiful actions. Good company, good manners, modest talk, doing good to others, feeding, spreading peace, visiting the ill pious or sinner, following the bier of a Muslim, treating good with a neighbour believer or non-believer, showing honour to a Muslim having honour to accept invitation, to forgive, to set disputes among the people, to give charity, to greet first, to pardon the faults of the people, to give up songs, instrument of songs and jests which Islam prohibited not to backbite, to speak truth, to give up miserliness, greed, deceit, to give up bad treatment with enemy, not to cut off blood tie, to give up bad conduct, pride, glory, haughtiness, indecencies, hatred rebellion, enmity, oppression, etc., all these are the attributes of a believer.

Anas (Radhiallahho Anho) reported that the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) did not give up good advice and enjoined us to stick to it. He used to warn us from backbiting and prohibited it. The following verse is sufficient to prove it: Allah loves justice and doing good to others. Muaz (Radihiallaho Anho) said: The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) advised me thus: O Muaz, I advise you: fear Allah, speak the truth, fulfil promise, pay up trust, give up breach of trust, save your neighbour, show kindness to orphans, be modest in talk, spread peace, do good deeds, hope less, stick to fifth earn knowledge about the Quran, love the next world, fear rendering of accounts and lower your aim. O Muaz, I forbid you: Don’t tell a truthful man lair, don’t follow any sin, don’t disobey any judge, don’t be a leader, don’t disobey a just judge, and don’t create disorder in land. I give you instruction: Fear Allah while passing by each stone, tree, and heaps of earth. Make repentance anew after committing any sin. Repent secretly for secret sin and openly for open sin.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Character and Conduct

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was the most patient among men, the bravest, the best judge, and one who pardoned most. His hand did not touch any strange woman. He was the greatest charitable man. He did not pass a single night hoarding any dirham or dinar. Whenever any excess money came to him and if he did not then get anyone to accept it as charity, he did not return home till he gave it to the poor and the needy. He did not store up for more than a year the provision of his family members which Allah was pleased to give him. He used to take one fifth of what easily came to him out of dates and wheat. What remained in excess, he used to give in charity. He used to give away in charity to one who begged anything of him, even out of his stored up provision.

He used to repair his shoes, join his wives in their labours and cut meat with them. He was the most shy among men and could not stare at anyone for long. He accepted invitation of slaves and free men and presentation of even a cup of milk. He did not use the properties of Zakat and used to accept the invitation of the widows and the poor. He used to speak the truth even though it was sometimes a cause of trouble to himself and his companions. He used to say: I Don’t accept any invitation of any infidel. He used to bind stones in his bell for appeasing his hunger and eat whatever he got. He did not return any present and did not take precaution in any lawful food. If he got dried grapes in lieu of bread, he ate them. If he got baked meat, he ate it. He used to eat whatever he got of bread, wheat, sweets, and honey. He considered milk as sufficient if he did not get any other food. He used not to take food leaning against a pillow or upon a high table. Soles of his two feet served as his towel. He used not to eat bread consecutively for three days till he met Allah. it was a voluntary act on his part. He used to accept invitations of marriage, attend the sick and the diseased and attend the funerals. He was the most modest without pride and his tongue was most eloquent without prolongation of his speech.

His constitution was the most beautiful. No worldly duties could keep him busy. He used to put on whatever he got. His ring was made of silver and he used to put it on in the little finger of his right or left hand. He used to take his servant behind his back on any conveyance, whether it was horse, camel or ass. Sometimes he walked bare footed, sometimes he had no turban or cap on his head.

He used to go even to a distant place to see sick, love scents and hate stench or bad smell, sit with the poor and the destitute, eat with them, honour those possessing honour, advise them to do good deeds and show kindness to the relatives. He did not treat harshly with anybody and accepted excuse offered to him. He used at times to cut jokes without falsehood and not burst into laughter.

He held innocent sports and plays as lawful, played with his wives and held races with them. He used to drink milk of camels and goats along with his family members and give them equal shares in foods and dresses. He passed no time uselessly except for Allah. He used to walk in the gardens of his companions for recreation. He did not hate the poor for their poverty, not fear the kings for their mighty power. He used to call the people, high or low, towards Allah. Allah adorned him with all the qualities, and good administration although he was illiterate. His boyhood was spent along with the shepherds and he used to graze sheep and goats. He was an orphan and his parents died in his infancy.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Good Manners

If the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) abused anybody, he used to give him compensation and show him kindness. He did never curse any woman or slave. Once when he was in the battle field, he was asked: O Messenger of Allah, it would have been better if you had cursed them. He said: Allah sent me as a mercy and not as a great curser. When he was asked once to curse a particular person or an unbeliever, he did not curse him but on the contrary prayed for his welfare. He never beat anybody with his own hand except in the way of Allah. he did not take any revenge for personal wrongs but he used to take it for preservation of the honour of Allah.

He used to select the easier of two things and kept away if there was any sin there in or anything to cut off relationship. He used to fulfill the needs of anyone who required his help, whether a slave or a freeman. Anas (Radhiallahho Anho) said: By One who sent him as a Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), he never said to me. Why have you done this or why have you not done this? His wives also did not rebuke me. If there was any bed of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), he used to sleep on it or else he used to sleep on the ground. Allah described the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) in the Torah Muhammad the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) of Allah, His chosen servant, without harshness, not roaming in the streets, not returning evil for evil. He is prone to pardon. He is forgiven. His birth is at Mecca, his migration to Ta’ba and his reign in Syria. He and his companions put on Ijar around their waists and call towards the Quran and wisdom. He makes ablution of his bodily limbs. Similar is his description in Injil (New Testament).

Another trait of his characters is that he used to salute first one whom he met with. He used to wait at a place where he was to meet a man. He used not to withdraw his hand from anybody till he first withdrew his hand. When he met with any of his companions, he used to handshake with him, hold his hand, enter his fingers unto his fingers and hold them firmly. He did not stand up or sit without remembering Allah. When anybody sat by him at the time of his prayer, he used to make it short and say to him: Have you got any need? When he fulfilled his need, he returned to his prayer.

His assembly was not different from that of his companions, as he sat where he went. He was not found sitting among his companions spreading out his legs. He used to sit mostly facing the Ka’ba and honour one who came to him. Even he used to spread his own sheet of cloth for one with whom he had no relationship. He used to give his pillow to one who came to him and everyone thought that the Prophet honoured him more . Whoever came to him could see his face.

He used to call his companions by their surnames with honour and he used to give one surname to one who had no surname. He used to call the women by the names of their issues and call others by their surnames. He used to call the boys by their surnames for which their hearts were inclined to him. He used to get angry last of all and was very affectionate and kind in dealing with the people. Nobody could speak loudly in his assembly. He used to recite: O Allah, Thou are pure, all praise is for Thee. I bear witness that there is no deity but Thee. I seek forgiveness from Thee and turn to Thee.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Words and Laughter

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was the greatest of the Arabs in oratory and sweet speech. He said: I am the greatest orator among the Arabs. He used to speak little. When he talked, he did not talk much. His talks fell gradually from his lips like pearls. Ayesha (Radhiallahho Anha) said: the Messenger of Allah used to talk like you. They said: The Messenger of Allah used to talk little and everything was expressed in this short talk. In his speech, there was no defect of excess or shortness. The words come one after another like pearls. Whoever heard them remembered them. He was sweetest in talk among his companions. He said to keep silent for long and have no talk without necessity. He used not to talk evil words and what he talked was just. He did not use ornamental words. His companions did never dispute before him. He used to say: Don’t beat one verse of the Quran by another as it has been revealed for many purposes. He used to smile much before his companions and teeth then were exposed to view.

It was reported: Once a desert Arab came to the Prophet whose face became changed at seeing him. Seeing anger in his face, the Arab said: By One who sent him as a true Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), I will not ask him till he smiles. Then he said: O Messenger of Allah, we heard that Dajial (Anti-Christ) will come with Sarid for the people. Then the people will remain hungry. My parents be sacrificed to you. Do you forbid me to eat it till I am destroyed? Do you order me to eat it with satisfaction? Shall I talk infidelity after faith in Allah? The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) laughed at this, so much so that his teeth were exposed to view. Then he said: It is not that, rather Allah will make you free from the food from which he made the believers free.

At the time when the Quran was being revealed to him, he used to smile most when something happened, he entrusted it to Allah, kept himself free from his own strength and ability and said in invocation: O Allah, show me truth in a true manner or give me grace to give it up, save me from doubt so that I may not follow my passion without Thy guidance. Make my desire to obey Thee. Take pleasure from the peace of my mind. Show me the different shades of truth. Thou guidest to the straight path whomsoever Thou willeth.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Manners in Eating

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) eat whatever he got. To him, the best food was what all partook of. When the dining cloth was spread, he used to say: In the name of Allah, O Allah, make it a sift to express gratefulness that there might be gifts in paradise. Whenever the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) sat to eat, he used to sit as praying man sits, not placing one leg upon another and say: I am a mere servant, I eat as a servant eats. He used not to take any hot food and said: There is no grace in it and Allah will not feed us with fire, so make this food cold. He used to eat whatever was presented to him with three fingers with the help of the fourth finger at times. Once a tiffin made of clarified butter, honey and wheat presented to him. He eat it and said: How good it is. He used to eat bread, curry, dates and salt. Of all the fresh fruits, the dearest to him was grapes, cucumber and water melon.

He used to eat gourd with bread and sugar and sometimes with dates. His ordinary meal consists of dates and water. Sometimes he mixed milk with dates. Meat was his most favourite curry. He said: Meat increase the power of hearing and is the king of foods in this world and the next. Had I prayed to my lord for eating meat everyday, He would have granted it. He used to eat cooked meat with gourd. He liked gourd and said: It is the fruit of a plant of my brother Jonah. The prophet said to me: O Ayesha (Radhiallahho Anha) when you cook meat, mix therewith much water as it makes the broken hearted strong. He used to eat the meat of hunted birds but he did not himself hunt or follow game.

He used to eat bread with butter and like goats neck and thigh. He liked gourd among curries, vinegar condiment, dried dates among dates. He prayed for three things and said: These have come from paradise and they are medicines for poison and insomnia. He liked among curries creepers of yellow newer and carrot. He disliked the meat of reservoir of urine. He did not eat several things of goat genital organ, female organ, blood, urinal meat, goitre, gall bladder, etc. He did not eat onion and garlic, nor condemned them. He used to eat what he liked and did not eat what he did not like. He did not like to eat the meat of lizard and cockroach, neither did he prohibit them to be eaten. He used to lick up his dish with his hand and said: Most blessing is in the remnants of food.

He used to lick up his fingers after meal so much so that they assumed reddish hue. He used not to cleanse his hands with towel till he licked up his fingers well and said: Nobody knows in which food there is blessing. When he finished his meal, he used to say: O Allah, for Thee is all praise. You have given me food and drink and given me satisfaction. So praise to Thee without expiation and farewell and being not free there from. He was accustomed to wipe his hand well and then wash his hands and mouth with excess water and take the name of Allah each time. He used to drink water in slow degrees and not hastily in one breath. He used not to blow breath in the cup of water at the time of drinking and supply food to one by his side.

Once he was given milk and honey mixed together but he refused to drink it saying: Two drinks at the same time and two curries at the same time! He said: I don’t make them unlawful but I consider them bad for rendering accounts on the resurrection day as they are additional things in this world. I like modesty and Allah raises up one who humbles himself for Allah. He lived in his house more bashful than an unmarried girl. He used not to order for preparation of any food and eat whatever was given to him and remain silent if not given.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Manners in Dress

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) use to put on sheet, gown, shirt and whatever he got. Green dress used to please him but most of his dresses were white. He said: Give your living men to dress with white garments and dress your dead therewith. He used to put on gown for Jihad. His shirt was long up to his thigh. He had only one shirt dyed with saffron with which he led prayers. Sometimes he put on only one shirt up to his thigh and say: I am only a slave. I put on garment as a slave puts on. He had two special garments for Jumma prayer which he did not put on at other times. Sometimes he had only one garment with which he cohabited with his wives. He had a black garment which he gifted away.

Omme Salma said: What fault has this black garment committed? He replied: I had put it on. She said: You look more beautiful if the black garment mixes with your beautiful constitution. Sometimes, he used to go out putting on a seal tied with thread in his hand. He used to impress his letters with seal and say: It is better to put seal in letter than back-biting. He used to put on cap under his turban. If he had no turban, he used to put on cap. Sometimes, he took off his cap from his head and fixed it in front as a prayer-stake. When he had no turban and cap, he covered his head with a sheet of cloth. He had a turban named Sahhab which he presented to Ali. (Radhiallahho Anho)

Whenever he put on a garment, he began from his right side and said: All praise is due to Allah who has given this garment to cover my private parts and to express adornment. When he wished to put off his garment, he began from his left side. When he put on a new garment, he gave his old cloth in charity to a poor man and said: If a Muslim gives his wearing garment to another Muslim, nobody except Allah will dress him. He remains in the custody of Allah till that cloth remains with him, be he alive or dead. His bed was made of grape-covers and refuges. It was two yards long and one yard and one cubit board.

He had the habit of naming animals, arms and properties. The name of his standard was Iqab, he had his swords named Zulfiqer, Makhzam, Rejab, and Kazib. The middle portion of his swords was moulded with silver. He used to wear belt of leather which had three rings of silver. The name of his arrow was Katum, of his shield Kafur, of his camel Qaswah, of his donkey Duldul, another donkey Ekab and of his goat Aynah whose milk he used to drink. He had an earthen pot, which he used as an ablution pot and drink water therefrom.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Pardon

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was the most patient among men and the most forgiving inspite of having power to take retaliation. If anybody presented to him any necklace of gold or silver, he used to give it to some of his companions. One day, a desert Arab stood up and said: O Muhammad , if Allah ordered you to do justice, I don’t see you doing it. He said: Woe to you! Who will do better justice to you after me? When he was about to go, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Take him to me with humility. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was taking silver coins for the people in the cloth of Bilal in the battle of Khaiber. One man said to him: O Messenger of Allah, do justice. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to him: Woe to you, if I don’t do justice, who will do justice after me? If I do not do justice, I shall be ruined and suffer loss. Omar (Radhiallahho Anho) then said: Should I not kill him as he is a hypocrite? He said: May Allah save him! In that case, people will say that I kill my companions.

Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was in a certain jihad. At one time, the unbelievers found the Muslim heedless. So one of them raised a sword upon the head of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and asked him: Who will prevent me to kill you? He at once replied: Allah, immediately the sword fell down from his hand and the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) took it up and said: Who will prevent me to kill you? He said: Hold it firmly. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Say, I bear witness, that there is no deity but Allah and that I am His Messenger. He said: I have got no envy against you, I shall not kill you. I shall not go with you and I shall not join those who fight against you. Then the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) set him free. The man went to his tribe and said: I have come to you today from the best man.

Anas (Radhiallahho Anho) reported that a Jewess mixed poison in the food of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) at Khaiber. When he began to eat it, he got smell of the poison and stopped eating. The woman was brought to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) who asked her about the poisoned food. The woman said: I intended to kill you. He said: Allah will not give you that power. The companions exclaimed: Should we not kill her? The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Don’t kill her. One day a Jew enchanted the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), Jibril gave this information to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). He took out the enchanted thing and came round, but took no revenge against the Jew.

Ali (Radhiallahho Anho) said: The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) sent Jubair, Meqdad and myself to a certain place and said: Go on till you reach Raojakhak where you will find a woman with a letter which you must take from her. We then reached the place and told the woman to deliver the letter so us. The woman denied knowledge of any letter. She was then compelled to deliver the letter to us. We then came therewith to the Prophet. It was written therein, from Hateb-b-Ali Bala’a to the polytheists of Mecca, etc. This letter was written to inform them secretly the affairs of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: O Hatib, what is the matter? He said: O Messenger of Allah, don’t hasten inflicting punishment on me. I have mixed with my people. the Refugees who are with you have got at Mecca their relatives who look after their families there. It was my object that though I have got no relationship with the Quraish, I would find such a man among them who will take care of my relatives there if I show kindness to them. I have not done it in a state of infidelity. I have not done it after accepting Islam being satisfied with infidelity. I have not done it being a retrograde. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: This man has spoken the truth. Omar (Radhiallahho Anho) said: Give us order to kill this hypocrite. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: He joined the battle of Badr with us. Who will inform you that the Almighty Allah addressed the warriors of Badr saying: Do whatever you like. Allah has forgiven you.

Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) distributed the booties when an Ansar stood up and said: Allah is not pleased with this distribution. When it was mentioned to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), his face turned red and he said: May Allah show you mercy. My brother Moses was given such troubles, but he remained patient. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Let nobody communicate any thing of my companions, as I wish that at the time when I come to you, I come with a sound mind.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Objects of Dislike

The skin of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was thin and his interior and exterior were clean. His pleasure and wrath were exposed in his face. When he got very angry, he used to touch his head repeatedly. He used not to disclose to anybody what appeared to him bad. One day a man dyed his body with yellow colour came to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). He dislike it but did not say anything till he went. When he departed, he said to the people: If this man is asked to give up yellow colour, it would be better. Once a desert Arab passed water in presence of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) within the mosque. The companions were about to assault him when the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to him: These mosque are not for passing urine and for uncleanness.

Once a desert Arab came to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and begged something from him. He gave it to him and said: I have treated well with you. The desert Arab said: Never, you have not treated well with me. At this, the companions got angry but the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) prohibited them to do any harm to him. Then he went to his room and brought something for him to eat and said: I have done you benefit. Then he said: May Allah bless your family and relatives. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to him: What you said first seemed unpleasant to my companions. If you like, say to them what you have said to me just now. What is in their mind will then vanish. He said: I shall say it to them. At another time, when the desert Arab came, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: I added what the desert Arab told me. It seemed to me that he was pleased with it. I asked him: Are you satisfied: Yes, may Allah bless your family and relatives. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: The smile of the desert Arab in relation to me is like that of a man who had a camel which went out. It went faster fearing the people who followed it. The driver of the camel hinted: You all go away and leave the camel and myself alone. I know it better and shall show kindness to it. The driver of the camel gave it some food and called it towards him. When it came, he loaded it and rode upon it. When the desert Arab used harsh words, he would have entered Hell had I not prohibited you to take revenge upon him and assault him.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Generosity

The Holy Prophet was the greatest charitable man. His charity during Ramadan was greatest. Nothing could prevent him from it. Ali (Radhiallahho Anho) narrated the qualities of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and said: His hand of charity of spread to its utmost and his tongue was the most truthful. His conduct was the most modest and he was the most honourable in lineage. Fear struck one who saw him first. Whoever mixed with him loved him. One who praised man begged something to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) in the name of Islam and it was given to him. He begged him something further and it was also given to him, and that was one flock of sheep which were grazing between two hillocks. He went to his people and said: Accept Islam because Muhammad gives so much that he does not fear poverty for that. He did never deprive one who begged something from him.

Once 10,000 dirhams were brought to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) which he distributed among his companions. After that, a man came to him and begged him something. He said: I have got now nothing, but still I am giving you something after purchasing it. It was done accordingly. Omar (Radhiallahho Anho) said: O Messenger of Allah, Allah has not imposed burden on you over which you have got no control. His words did not appear pleasing to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). That man said: Spend and do not fear poverty from Allah. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) then smiled and pleasure was visible in his face. Once when he returned from the battlefield of Hunain, the desert Arabs came to him and begged from him so much that he was compelled to take shelter to a corner of a tree. They caught his sheet and he said: Give back my sheet to me. Had I had sheep to the number of these thorny plants, I would have distributed them all to you and you would not have found me a miser or a coward.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Bravery and Heroism

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was the greatest hero and brave man. Ali (Radhiallahho Anho) said: In the battle of Badr, we all stood surrounding the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). He braved the enemies and we found him bravest on that day. He said: When fight began and friends and foes met with one another, we feared for the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) as he was closest to the enemies. Nobody went so near the enemies than him. When he passed order for fighting, he got pleased and prepared himself. He was seen at that time most superior in strength. Imran (Radhiallahho Anho) said: The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) attacked the enemy who came to him first. The companions said that the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) had then a firm hold on the enemy. In the battle of Hunain, when the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was surrounded by the enemies, he alighted from his mule and said: I am surely the Messenger of Allah. There is no untruth in it. I am the descendant of Abdul Muttableb. He was on that day the bravest of all.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Modesty and Humility

Inspite of the lofty position of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), he was the most humble and modest. Ibn Amer (Radhiallahho Anho) reported: I saw the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) throwing stones at Jamrah riding on a camel. There was no assault in it, no driving out and no saying: Go aside, go aside. He sat on a sheet of cloth on the back of a mule and took someone behind him. He used to visit the sick, follow the biers, accept invitations of servants and slaves, repair shoes and sew garments. He used to help his family members in their household duties. His companions used not to stand up in his honour as they know his dislike for it. He used to salute the children when passing by them.

One day a man was brought to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) and he was afraid to see him. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: Be quiet, I am not a king. I am a son of an humble Quraish woman who used to eat gourd. He used to sit with his companions like an ordinary man. Whenever any stranger came to see him, he could not at first recognize him till he was introduced to him. Ayesha (Radhiallahho Anha) said: May Allah sacrifice me to you, eat learning as it easier for you. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) leaned towards the ground so much that it seemed that his head would touch the ground. He used to say: I shall take meal like the eating of a slave and sit like the sitting of a slave. He used not to eat in plates while he lived.

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Figure and Constitution

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was neither long stature nor short. When he walked alone, he appeared like a middle stature man. If a man of long stature walked with him, his figure looked longer. When two men of long stature walked by his two sides, he appeared longest, but when they became separate from him, the people called them long men. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was of middle stature. He was pretty, neither too white, nor too brown. He was of pure reddish hue. Some one praised him saying. His limbs which confronted the sun, such as face and neck, appeared more whitish than reddish colour. The sweats of his face were like pearls and more perfumed than musk. His hair was very pretty, neither straight nor curly. When he combed them, they appeared like lines in sands. It is said that his hair was kept flowing up to his shoulders, sometimes he parted his hair into four parts and each two parts were let off through his two ears. Sometimes he kept his hair above his ears and his neck then appeared shining like pearls. Grey hairs were found in his head and beard. Their number was not more than seventeen. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) had a most pretty constitution. Some gave the smile of his beauty to that of the full moon. His forehead was wide and the place between his eyebrows was bright like pure silver and eye-balls were black tinged with reddish hue. The hair of his eye lashes were profuse. His nose was thin and his teeth were neither separated, nor united. When they were exposed at the time of his smile or laugh, they shone like lighting. His lip was most beautiful and the ends of his face was the most soft. His face was smooth and nose not long. His beard was thick and he did not trim it. He used to clip his moustache. His neck was the most beautiful, neither long, nor short. If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold. His chest was board. It was even like a mirror and white like the moon light. There was a thin line of hair extending from his chest up to the navel and there was no other hair over his belly. There were three lines in his belly. His apparel covered one line. His shoulders were wide and there was hair over them. The place between his shoulders was wide and therein there was impression or seal of prophethood inclined a little towards the right shoulder. There was a spot mixed with black and yellow colours. There was hair around it which appeared like the hair of a horse. He had hands full of flesh and his fingers were like silver sticks and his palms were softer than wool and were so full of scent that it seemed that otto was applied to them. Sweet scent was attached to the hand of a person who handshake with the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). If his pure hand touched the head of a boy, he could be recognized among boys owing to the sweet scent of his hand. His thighs were full of flesh and his constitution was proportionate and beautiful. In his latter days, he became rather fleshy but he was without grease like his first stage of life.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) walked firmly and steadily. He said: concerning constitution I am similar to Adam but in character and conduct I am similar to Abraham. He said: I have got ten names near my Lord, (1) Muhammad (praised), (2) Ahmad (most praised), (3) Maui (remover of infidelity), (4) Aqeb (coming last), (5) Hasher (all appearing after me), (6) messenger of mercy, (7) messenger of repentance, (8) messenger of fights, (9) Muqfi (last of all prophets) and (1) Qasem (embodiment of all virtues).

Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s Miracles

The character and conduct of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), his actions, his habits, management of affairs, his treatment with the different classes of people, him showing the straight path to them, his wonderful answers to different difficult and subtle questions, his untiring efforts for the good of people, his good guidance regarding the open laws of Shariat all these matters lead one to the conclusion that these were beyond the power of a man without help of an unseen hand. It is impossible on the part of a hypocrite or a liar. The people testified by seeing his constitution and qualifications that he was a great truthful man sent by Allah.

Allah gave him these qualities though he was illiterate and had no education and lived always with the illiterate Arabs. Being illiterate, orphan and weak, how could he acquire such good character and conduct, such knowledge about Allah without worldly knowledge? His true and correct knowledge about the earlier Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) show that he is a true messenger of Allah, because he knew these truths by revelations. How could he know what was beyond man unless he received revelation? His miracles prove that he is a true Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) of Allah.

Some of his Miracles with Help of Allah

(1) When the Quraish of Mecca told the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) to divide the moon into two parts, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) invoked Allah who split the moon into two portions and it was clearly visible to the people present.

(2) At the time of the siege of Medinah by the allied armies for more than one month, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) supplied provision to all the people.

(3) At another time, he satisfied eighty people with food with only four muds of maize and one little goat.

(4) Once the daughter of Basher had a few dried grapes with which the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) fed all his soldiers to their satisfaction and there remained also something in excess.

(5) Once water began to gush forth from the fingers of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam), so much so that his soldiers drank to their hearts content and also made ablution therewith.

(6) Once there was no water in a well at Tabuk and it dried up. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) threw a little water from his ablution to the well and immediately it gushed forth so profuse water that thousands of soldiers drank it to their satisfaction.

(7) At another time, there was no water in a well at Hudaibiyah. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) threw the remaining ablution water into it which immediately gushed forth abundant water. Fifteen hundred men drank it to their satisfaction.

(8) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) threw a handful of dust towards the faces of his enemies as a result of which they instantly became blind. Soon after this verse was revealed: When you throw, you did not throw, but Allah threw it.

(9) The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) used to deliver sermon standing on the trunk of a palm tree in the mosque, when it was replaced by another, the trunk began to emit mild sound which was heard by all his companions. When he touched it with his hand, it became calm.

(10) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) told the Jews to make Mobahala (that is whoever is a liar, he will die), but the Jews gave the news next morning that they feared to make it for fear of their lives. This is mentioned in the Quran.

(11) The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) warned Osman (Radhiallahho Anho) of a great danger as a result of which he would enter paradise. History bears testimony that he was murdered in his very house while he was reading the Quran. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) told Ammer that a rebellious party would kill Osman. It is true that they murdered him.

(12) Once a man joined Jihad in the way of Allah. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said about him that he would enter Hell. Then it was seen that he committed suicide.

(13) When the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was on his way towards Medina on migration, one Suraqa-b-Malek was following him to capture him in expectation of a reward, but the feet of his horse was sunk in dust in the act. When he sought the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam)’s help to escape from the danger, he prayed for him. This continued for three times and the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) prayed for him each time. After being released for the third time, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) gave him this prophecy in his almost helpless condition, that he would soon wear the bangles of Persian King Khosroe. After the conquest of Persia by the Muslims, these bangles were procured from the kind and were given to him for wearing.

(14) Aswad Ansari was a liar and claimed prophethood during the life time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). He was a resident of Sana’a in Yemen. One night he was found assassinated in that town. In that very night, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) gave his death news to the people and he named Feroze Daifami as his murderer.

(15) During the night of migration to Medina, one hundred Quraish surrounded the house of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) to kill him, but he went out of their clutches throwing dust on their heads for which they could not see him going out.

(16) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) gave the prophecy to some of his companions: The last man among you will die of arson. It after wards occurred that it came true.

(17) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) called two trees to cover him to give him the opportunity of urinating. The two trees shifted from their sites, covered him from public view and went away to their old sits after he finished his call of nature.

(18) The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was of middle stature, but when he walked, two long men by his sides, he was seen the longest of them.

(19) The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: I will kill Abu-b-Hani in the battle of Uhud. In the battle, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) inflicted a minor injury on him and as a result he expired.

(20) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) was given food mixed with poison to eat. He who ate it first expired, but the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) lived for four years even after taking that food. That food told the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam): There is poison in me.

(21) In the battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) mentioned the fate of the leaders of the Quraish. This happened exactly as he said.

(22) The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to his daughter Fatema: You will meet me first after my death. She died six months after the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam).

(23) Once the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said to his wives: She who is longer in hand will meet me first after my death. Jainab (Radhiallahho Anha) was the most charitable among his wives and she died first after the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam).

(24) A certain camel had not milk in its udder. As soon as the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) touched its udder, it began to give milk. Abdullah-b-Mausd embraced Islam on seeing this miracle of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam).

(25) Once one eye of a companion went out of its socket. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) restored it to its site and his eye sight increased more.

(26) The greatest living miracle of the Holy Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) is the Quran which stands even today. He threw challenge to the people to produce a chapter like it. The Quran says: Say, if jinn and mankind gather together to bring a book like this Quran, they won’t be able to bring like it even though they help one another. So nobody was successful to bring a book or even a sentence like it, up to this time. This alone is a sufficient and living testimony that the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) Muhammad (peace be upon Him) is a true messenger of Allah.

1. The Qur’an on Muhammad’s (S) Persona
Indeed there is for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern (Qur’an 33:21)

The Qur’an gives us a glimpse of Muhammad’s (S) personality in various verses.
With Allah’s grace, you behaved with them with a kind heart. For if you were vengeful or hard hearted, they may have abandoned you. (Qur’an 3:159)

On another occasion the Qur’an addresses its listeners in the following fashion,
Among you is a Messenger who is distressed by your difficulties. He is anxious for your welfare, and is generous towards the believers. (Qur’an 9:128)
And Muhammad (S) is the bearer of glad tidings and mercy as well as a warner. And have We not sent you as a mercy unto the worlds. (Qur’an 21:107)
And have We not sent you but as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner unto all mankind (Qur’an 34:28)
The Qur’an extols Muhammad’s (S) high character.
Verily you are of a high and noble character. (Qur’an 68:4)
In addition, talks about the qualities one would acquire by following him.
Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find written down in the Torah (Old Testament) and Injil (The book revealed to Jesus). He bids them to the seemly and prohibits the unseemly; Allows unto them things clean and forbids unto them things unclean; And relieves of them of their burden and the shackles which have been upon them. Those who believe in him and side with him and support him and follow the light which has been sent down with him; Those shall fare well. (Qur’an 7:157)

2. Personal Traits (Appearance, Dress, Likes and Dislikes)
Prophet Muhammad (S) is reported to have been of medium height, well proportioned with a fair complexion. He had a wide forehead, closely-knit eyebrows, and wide-set black eyes with long eyelashes. His face was lightly fleshy and the mouth was wide. He had a long neck, relatively large head, and broad shoulders. His beard was thick, and his wrists and shoulders were hairy. The palms of his hands were broad and fleshy. The wrists were long, the ankles thin, and the arches of the feet somewhat high. His physical appearance and charisma invariably impressed people. When someone remarked to Jabir bin Samurah that the Prophet’s face shone like a sword, he replied, “No, it shines like the sun and the moon.”
On the Prophet’s back, between the shoulders, there was a raised oval the size of a pigeon egg. Jabir bin Samurah is quoted in the traditions recorded by both Muslim and Tirmadhi as saying, “I saw a pigeon egg sized raised fleshy area between the Prophet’s shoulders.” Another description speaks about a collection of moles near the left shoulder, which is sometimes called the seal of the Prophet.
His hair was usually shoulder length. At the conquest of Makkah, people noticed his hair was lying on the shoulder in four bundles. As the Prophet preferred the “People of the Book” to the Mushrikun (disbelievers), and because the Mushrikun parted their hair, the Prophet initially wore his hair without a part. However, according to Tirmadhi, as later the Mushrikun practically disappeared, the Prophet no longer felt that he had to be careful not to look like them and started parting his hair. He frequently oiled his hair, and combed itevery other day; very few of his hair had turned gray. The Prophet used to walk fast, leaning forward slightly, as if he were walking downhill. His conversation was very sweet and pleasant. He used to speak carefully and in concise sentences so that the listeners often remembered every word of what they had heard. When he wanted to emphasize something, he repeated it several times. Often, when speaking, he appeared to be gazing at the sky.
The most touching description of Muhammad (S) is recorded in the words of Khadijah . Consoling him when he was awed and shaken by the first revelation, she said, “Allah will never make you sad. You share the burden of those who have loans they cannot pay, you help the poor, you are a great host, you uphold justice, and you help people in need.”

3. Justice
Muhammad (S) had an acute sense of justice and fair play. This was seen most clearly when he dealt with his enemies. Once, the body of a companion (Abdullah, cousin of Muhayyisah) was found in a ditch in the town of Khaybar, an exclusively Jewish town. It was clear that he had been murdered. Muhayyisah asked for a judgment of retribution against the people of Khaybar. The Prophet asked Muhayyisah if he had witnessed the crime and Muhayyisah replied he had not. However, he suggested that the Jews from Khaybar should be brought in to take an oath that they did not commit the murder. The Prophet said that that would be unfair and instead gave the just recompense from the general treasury.
It was common in pagan Arabia for the people from a higher class to be judged by a more lenient standard. Once, a woman from the Quraysh was caught stealing, and one of the companions requested leniency because she was from the tribe of Quraysh. Muhammad’s (S) face showed signs of some anger. He said, “Banu Isra’il were ruined because they were tough in punishing the poor and were lenient toward the rich.”

4. Simplicity and Egalitarianism
Muhammad (S) ate anything that was offered to him, so long it was within the bounds of what had been prescribed as acceptable in Islam. He wore anything that was available. Frequently, his clothes were old and rough. In fact, he disliked fancy clothes and formality. He sat down anywhere on the floor, whether on a reed mattress or the bare floor. He frequently wrapped himself in a woolen blanket and sometimes slept in it. His mattress was an animal skin stuffed with date bark. He felt no hesitation or embarrassment in helping with household chores.
The rich and the poor, the free and the slave, the Quraysh and the non-Quraysh were treated alike. Food was shared equally, manual labor (as in the construction of the Masjid at Madinah and the digging of the trench) was shared equally, and above all, justice was meted out equally.

5. Generosity
The Prophet could never say no to a request. Once, when someone asked for his help, he replied, “I have nothing to give this time.” He then went with that person to ‘Umar’s house to get the needed help. Many a time, he purchased something from a person and gave it back to the same individual as a donation. He disliked keeping any “dinar” (gold coins) for more than three days. At the time of his death, he was practically destitute by choice. Despite his position in the society, he lived a simple and modest life without any luxuries.

6. Attitude Toward the Disenfranchised, the Displaced, the Dispossessed and the Disabled
Although the Qur’an never explicitly banned slavery, Muhammad (S) did everything possible by word and action to get rid of it. Freeing a slave was considered an act of high charity. Slaves were allowed to buy their own freedom, and they were to be treated like family members. He would encourage people to use phrases like “my son” and “my child” when referring to slaves. The attitude that slaves were to be treated like family members explains the curious and unique phenomenon of slave kings and rulers in Muslim history. Both in India and Egypt, kings nominated their favorite slave to succeed them to the throne, resulting in slave dynasties of kings which lasted several generations.
Another group of abused and dispossessed in the society was women. He was able to achieve dramatic changes in the status of women. I will discuss the issue in some detail later in this paper.

7. A Gracious Host
Muhammad (S) took great pleasure in personally serving his guests. It was not uncommon for him to serve whatever he had at home and let his family go hungry. He liked giving gifts and was also pleased to accept them. “Send each other gifts. It will increase love and affection.”
However, he would not accept favors. When Abu Bakr gave him a camel for the ride during Hijrah (Migration), he paid Abu Bakr for it. Even the land on which the first Masjid was built in Madinah was not accepted without compensating its owner.

8. Dislike of Begging, Monastic Behavior and Excessive Praise
The Prophet Muhammad (S) is recorded as saying, “It is better to carry wood on your back and sell it, than beg.” On another occasion, he said, “On the day of reckoning, begging will be like a blemish on the face of the beggar.”
He said begging is permitted in three extreme situations. First, for someone who is literally drowning in debt, he may beg until his needs are met. Second, when someone is affected by a sudden financial tragedy, he may beg until he is back on his feet. Third, if someone is starving he may beg.
Some of Muhammad’s (S) companions considered adopting monastic behavior for self-purification and attainment of greater spirituality. When the Prophet heard of this, he called them in and expressed his displeasure. He said, “Your body has a right over you, so do your eyes and so does your wife.” Some companions would fast daily. He admonished them not to fast for more than three days in a month (except during Ramadan). When one of the companions insisted that he had the strength to fast more often, Muhammad (S) allowed him to fast every other day, saying, “This was Dawud’s (David) (as) practice.”
He particularly disliked excessive praise. When someone would start praising him, he would immediately stop him. On another occasion, when someone started reciting poetry in his praise, he stopped him by saying, “Do not praise me excessively—; I am but a servant of Allah.”

9. Promises and Pacts
Muhammad (S) always kept his word. The Makkans used to call him al-Amin (the trustworthy) even before he received the Wahy (revelation). When Negus, the Christian ruler of Ethiopia, was interrogating the Muslims who had migrated to Ethiopia about Muhammad’s (S) character, one of his questions was, “Does your Messenger keep his word?” The answer was, “Yes; always!” Whether it was the “Covenant of Madinah” or the “treaty of Hudaybiyah” all pacts were honored scrupulously.

10. Forgiveness
Muhammad (S) never took personal revenge and forgave easily and quickly. There are many instances when he took verbal and even physical abuse imperturbably. Sometimes his companions would become very upset at the insulting and arrogant behavior of the Quraysh. He would cool them down and urge them to forgive. He forgave even his worst enemies. His forgiveness and grace toward Hind, on whose urging Hamzah was murdered and mutilated, stands as a witness to his extraordinary compassion. He was always courteous to the Munafiqun (hypocrites) and even the pagans (Kuffar) in the community. He knew that some of the hypocrites would participate in congregational prayer and even in some battles. He was fully aware of the fact, but never confronted them.

11. Desire To Spread Literacy and Education
Although personally unlettered he loved education. The acquisition and spread of knowledge was considered a sacred duty. He frequently ransomed prisoners of war if they promised to teach Muslims to read and write. “The ink in a scholar’s pen”, he is reported to have said, ” is more precious than the blood of a martyr.”

12. Public Display of Affection
He was a very affectionate man and had no hesitation in displaying it. Whenever he met Fatimah, his daughter, he would greet her very warmly. This love for her daughter was not tainted by even a trace of favoritism.
Because of all the hard manual work Fatimah had to do at home, like carrying water from the well in the “mishk” (water skin) and using a hand mill to crush grain into flour, her hands had black and blue marks and calluses. Yet, Muhammad (S) would not allot her a servant. They were allotted preferentially to those who fought in the battle of Badr.

13. Humor
Muhammad (S) liked humor. He smiled a lot and enjoyed playing with children. There are multiple examples of his gentle sense of humor.
Once, an old woman came up to him and asked for paradise. He said, “Old women do not enter the paradise.” The woman started crying. As she started leaving the room, the Prophet, showing his subtle sense of humor, stopped her and said, “Old women will become young before entering the heaven.” (Tirmadhi)
One of his companions was Zahir, who used to trade in metal objects. Once the Prophet was passing by the bazaar, he saw Zahir and playfully grabbed him from behind and said, “Will anyone buy this slave?” Zahir laughed and said, “O Messenger of Allah, whoever buys this slave will be in loss.” The Prophet smiled and said, “In Allah’s eyes, your value is high.”
On another occasion, a man approached the Prophet and asked him for a camel to ride. The Prophet said, “I would give you a camel’s child”. The man said, “O Messenger of Allah. What will I do with a camel’s child?” The Prophet smiled and said, “Is there any camel who is not the progeny of a camel?”
Studying reports in Sirah (biography of the Prophet) and Hadith literature, Muhammad’s (S) personality emerges as that of a thoughtful, introspective individual, who lived a modest life. He was easily accessible to even the poorest in the community, disliked excesses in behavior, had a gentle sense of humor, was profoundly God conscious, and was single-mindedly devoted to establishing socio-economic justice.
The defamous image created by some authors of a man who was cunning, cruel, unjust, power hungry, and given to debauchery is such a fiction that it must astound any serious scholar of Muhammad’s (S) life. In fact, upon reviewing the biographical literature of religious leaders, it is difficult to come up with another example in which a religious or world leader has been so misrepresented, vilified and calumniated.

The Physical Description and Beauty of the Prophet

Ali (RA) described the noble features of the Prophet (may Allah peace and blessings be upon him): “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) was neither assertively tall, nor reticently short, and he was an average-sized member of the population. His hair was neither crisply curled nor lank; it was loosely curled. He was neither plump nor chubby-cheeked, and in his face there was a rounded quality. He was white with a reddish tinge, dark black-eyed, with long eyelashes. He had splendid kneecaps, elbow joints and shoulder blades, free from hair. He had a strip of hair from the top of the chest to the navel. The palms of his hands and the soles of his feet were thickset. When he walked, he moved as if he were descending a declivity, and when he looked around, he looked around altogether. Between his shoulders was the Seal of Prophethood, for he is the Seal of the Prophets. He was the best of the people in generosity, the most truthful of the people in speech, the gentlest of them in temperament, and the noblest of them in social intercourse. If someone saw him unexpectedly, he was awestruck by him, and if someone associated with him knowingly, he loved him. His describer says: “I have never seen the like of him (Allah bless him and give him peace), neither before him nor after him.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

It is related from Jaabir (Radiallahu anhu) that he said: “I once saw Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam on the night of a full moon. On that night he wore red clothing. At times I looked at the full moon and at times at Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam. Ultimately I came to the conclusion that Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam was more handsome, beautiful and more radiant than the full moon.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.2. The Seal of Prophethood

Abdullah bin Sarjas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “I came to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam while there were people sitting in his company. I went around to the back of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam (The narrator may have done this physically). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam understood what I was trying to do. He removed the sheet (body wrap) from his back. I saw the place of the Seal of Prophethood between his two shoulders. It was like a cluster surrounded by til (moles) which appeared to be like a wart. I came before Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and said to him. May Allah forgive you (or Allah has forgiven you, as is mentioned in Surah Fath, ‘That Allah may forgive you, your former and your latter sins’). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied: ‘May Allah forgive you too’. The people said to me that Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam has made du’aa for your maghfirah (forgiveness). I replied: ‘Yes, and for you too, because Allah Ta’aala has said: ‘O Muhammad, seek forgiveness for yourself and the Mu’min males and females also”‘. (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.3. The Blessed Hair of the Prophet

Qataadah bin Da’aamah As-Sadusi relates: “I asked Anas R.A., ‘How was the hair of Rasulullah (SAW)?’. He replied: ‘It was not very twisted, nor very straight. It had a slight twist and was a bit curled, and reached till his ear-lobes'”. (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

Anas bin Maalik R.A. reports:”I did not count more than fourteen white hair on the head and beard of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam)”. (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.4. The Prophet’s Garments

Ummi Salamah Radiyallahu ‘anha relates: “Of all the clothing, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam preferred wearing the qamis (Thowb, kurtaa) the most”. (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

Bin Abbas (RA) says that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) used to say, “Choose white clothing, as it is the best clothing. And bury your dead in it.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.5. The Prophet’s Sandals

Qatadah reports, ” I asked Anas (RA) to describe the sandals of Allah’s Messenger (SAW) and he replied, ‘Each sandal had two straps.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

Abu Hurairah (RA) relates that the Prophet (SAW) said,”Whenever one of you puts on his shoes, he should begin with the right, and when he removes his shoes he should begin with his left. The right foot should be first when putting on, and last when removing. ” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.6. The Prophet’s Ring

Bin Umar (RA) narrates that,”Allah’s Messenger (SAW) had a ring made of silver. He used it as a stamp on letters, but did not always wear it.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.7. The Prophet’s Sword

Anas (RA) reports that< “the handle of the sword of the Prophet of Allah was made of silver.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

3c.8. The Prophet’s Turban

Bin Umar (RA) reports, “when the Messenger of Allah fastened an amamah, he used to put the shamlah between his shoulders.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

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Holy prophet muhammad (p.b.u.h.) physical description.

 Holy prophet muhammad (p.b.u.h.) physical description.

Hazrat Sheikh-ul Hadeeth Maulana Muhammad Zakaria (R.A.) writes in Khasa’Ile Nabawi — in explanation of SHAMA’ILE TIRMIDHI:-

Imaam Tirmidhi has quoted in this chapter those ahaadith that have been narrated on the noble features of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). It is impossible to accurately describe actual beauty and elegance of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam).

To draw a pen-picture of his appearance is beyond one’s capability, but the Sahabah (Radiallahu anhum) have endeavoured, according to their capabilities, to preserve what little they could, of which some is written here. Qurtubi says: “The full beauty and elegance of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) has not been made manifest, otherwise it would not have been possible for man to look at him”. The Sahabah (Radiallahu anhum), have done the ummah an immense favour by conveying to them the perfect intrinsic knowledge, as well as the perfect conspicuous elegance and beauty of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). When an unfulfilled lover is deprived of meeting the beloved then he stands in front of the beloved’s house remembering the features of his beloved, in an attempt to gain some solace. It is from habits and features that the heart is appeased.

Imaam Tirmidhi has collected from these about 400 ahaadith and divided them into fifty five chapters. In the first chapter fourteen ahaadith are quoted.

(1) HADEETH NO. 1.

Anas (Radiallahu Anhu) reports: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was neither tall nor was he short (like a dwarf–He was of medium stature). In complexion, he was he was neither very white like lime, nor very dark, nor brown which results in darkness (he was illuminant, more luminous than even the full-moon on the 14th night).
The hair of Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was neither very straight nor very curly (but slightly wavy). When he attained the age of forty, Allah the Almighty granted him nubuwwah (prophethood).He lived for ten years in Makkah (commentary) and in Madina for ten years. At that time there were not more than twenty white hair on his mubarak (blessed) head and beard.” (This will be described in detail in the chapter on white hair of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam).

COMMENTARY.

Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was of a medium stature, but slightly taller. This has been reported in a narration from Sayyidina Hind bin Abi Haalah (Radiallahu Anhu) and others. An objection may arise concerning these two hadeeth, that it is stated in one hadeeth that when Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) used to stand up in a group, he appeared to be the tallest among them. This was not due to his hight, but was a result of a Mu’jizah (Miracle). In the manner that no one had reached a higher status than Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) in `Kamalaate Ma’nawiyyah’, (super intellectual status) likewise in the `Surah Zaahiri’ (outward appearance) no one could excel him.

It is stated in the hadeeth under discussion that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) lived for ten years in Makkah Mukarramah after nubuwwah (prophethood). For this reason it is stated that he attained the age of sixty years. This is contrary to what has been reported in the other ahaadith, where it is stated that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) lived there for thirteen years and attained the age of sixty three years. In some ahaadith it is stated that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) attained the age of sixty five years. At the end of this kitaab all three ahaadith will be quoted. Imaam Bukhari (R.A.) says:

“Most narrations show that Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) lived for sixty three years.” The ulama (scholars) have summed up these ahaadith in two ways. First, that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) received nubuwwah (prophethood) at the age of forty and risaalah three years thereafter, and after that he lived for ten years in Makkah Mukaraamah. According to this, the three years between nubuwwah and risaalah have been in the hadeeth under discussion.
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(2) HADEETH NO. 2.

Anas bin Malik (Radiallhu Anhu) reports, “Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was of a medium stature, he was neither very tall nor very short. He was very handsome, of medium built and his hair was neither very curly nor very straight (but was slightly wavy). He had a wheat-coloured complexion. When he walked, he leaned forward slightly”.

COMMENTARY.

In this hadeeth Sayyidina Anas (Radiallhu Anhu) states that the complexion of Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was wheat coloured. In the previous hadith, also narrated by Sayyidina Anas (Radiallahu Anhu), he states that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) did not have a wheat-coloured complexion. This has been mentioned in the translation of the hadeeth. Actually, what is derived from the two hadeeth is that Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was not of such a dark complexion that decrease the lightness and beauty of a person, but had a radiant and light colour, which slightly wheat-coloured.

In this hadeeth the word `Yata-kaf-fa-oo’ is used regarding the walking of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). The scholars interpret this word in several ways. Some say it means to walk at a fast pace. Some are of the opinion that it means to lean a bit forward while walking. Some say it means to lift the leg with force. All three explanations are correct because the walk of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) fulfilled all three descriptions and the word also conveys these three meanings. Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) walked quickly and not like the Romeos of this age who walk like women. It was also the noble habit of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) to walk with slight forward inclination of the head and shoulders. He did not walk with chest pushed out with pride. He lifted his legs as men do while walking and did not drag his legs on the ground.
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(3) HADEETH NO. 3.

Baraa bin Aazib (Radiallahu anhu) relates that: “Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was a man of a medium build, (slightly tall, as explained before); he had broad shoulders (from which we may gather that he had a wide chest); he had dense hair which reached his ear-lobes; he wore a red striped lungi (a cloth worn around the legs) and shawl. I never saw anybody or anything more handsome than him”.

COMMENTARY.

In this hadeeth the word `Rajulun Marbu’un’ is used, which if the letter `Jeem’ has a dammah (pesh), means a man. This could be correct. This type of word is used in the Arabic language for connecting words, but because no special quality or attribute is derived, some Muhadditheen (scholars of hadeeth) are of the opinion that if the letter `Jeem’ has a fatah (zabar) on it, it means something that is between straight and bent. It may also be possible that in this case it refers to the description of the hair of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), and as described before, his mubarak (blessed) hair had a slight curl in it. From this hadeeth, some scholars are of the opinion that it is permissible for men to wear red coloured clothing. According to the Hanafis there is a detailed explanation on this subject. Before selecting red clothing, the scholars should be consulted regarding its permissibility.

The scholars have written that in this hadeeth the Sahabi did not see `anything’ more handsome and beautiful than Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). This is said because besides human beings, the moon, sun, etc. are also included.
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(4) HADEETH NO. 4.

Baraa bin Aazib (Radiallahu Anhu) reports: “I never seen someone with long hair and red clothing more handsome than Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). His hair reached his shoulders. The portion between his two shoulders was wide. He was neither very tall nor very short”.

COMMENTARY.
The description of the hair of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) in this hadeeth is different one mentioned before. There it is stated that his hair reached his ear-lobes. In reality there is no difference between the two hadeeth, as the hair does not remain the same length but grows. Sometimes the hair was shortened, sometimes longer hair was kept.
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(5) HADEETH NO. 5.
It is reported from Ali (Radiallahu Anhu): “Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam was neither very tall nor very short. The soles of both feet were very fleshed. (This quality is praiseworthy in a man as it denotes strength and courage but is not praiseworthy for a woman). He had a large head. The joints of the bones was also large. The was a thin line of hair from the chest to the navel. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) walked, it appeared that he was descending from a high place”. Ali (Radiallahu Anhu) says: “I did not see anyone like him neither before him, nor after him”.

COMMENTARY.
The use of a sentence like: “I have not seen anyone like him”, is primarily for emphasis. By describing Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) in this manner, there is however no exaggeration because the complete beauty of appearance of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) cannot be fully described. Munaawi wrote that every person is required to believe that with whatever physical qualities and attributes of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) is described, no other person can compare with it. This is not merely a belief. Books on Seerah (History of the Prophet peace be upon him) and ahaadeeth are replete with descriptions of his beautiful qualities. Therein it is stated that Allah Ta’aala bestowed fully on the Prophet (peace be upon him) all the inner kamaalat (perfection) and Zaahiri (apparent) beauty. Two verses (couplets) are narrated from Sayyiditina Aa’ishah (Radiallahu Anha), the meaning of which is: “that if the friends of Zulaikha could see the blessed face of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), they would have cut their hearts instead of their hands”. How true! If you wish to read more about the love of the Sahabah (Radiallahu Anhum—male and female—for Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) read Chapter Eight of my book `Stories of the Sahabah’ (Radiallahu Anhum).
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(6) HADITH NO: 6.
It is related from Ebrahim bin Muhammad (Radiallahu anhu) who is from the sons (grand sons of Ali radiallahu anhu, that whenever Ali radiallahu anhu described the nobel features of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), he used to say: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was neither very tall nor short, but of a medium stature among people. His hair was neither very curly nor very straight, but had a slight wave in it. He did not have a big body nor a round face, but his mubaarak face was slightly round (meaning he did not have a fully round face nor a fully elongated face, bur in between the two). The complexion of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was white with redness in it. The mubaarak eyes of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) were extremely black. His eyelashes were long. The joints of the body (e.g. elbows and knees etc.) were large, likewise the portion between the two shoulders was broad and fully fleshed. There was no hair (more than normal) on his body. (Some people have profuse hair on their body. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) did not have hair on the parts of his body, besides places like the arms and legs etc.) He had a thin line of hair running from the chest to the navel. The hands and feet of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) were fully fleshed. When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigour, as if he were descending to a low-lying place. When he addressed a person he turned his whole body towards that person. (He did not only turn his face towards the person he addressed, as this is considered impolite, and sometimes, it even denotes pride. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) faced the person he spoke to, with his chest and body. Some scholars have translated this as, when Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) addressed someone, he completely turned his face towards that person, and did not give a side glance. This is not a suitable translation). The seal of Prophethood was situated between his shoulders. He was a last of all prophets. He was the most generous and the most truthful. He was the most kind-hearted and came from a most noble family. (It means his character, family back-ground and everything else was of the best). Any person who saw him suddenly would become awe-inspired. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had such a great personality and dignity, that the person who saw him for the first time, because of his awe-inspiring personality, would be overcome with a feeling of profound respect. Firstly, there is a ro`b (awe) for physical beauty, with this when other Kamaalat are added what more could then be said of the ro’b (awe). Besides, the special attributes and qualities granted to Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) ro’b (awe) is also one of the special qualities granted to him). Anyone who came in close contact with him, and knew his excellent character was smitten with the love of his excellent attributes. Anyone who described his noble features can only say: “I have not seen anyone like Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) neither before nor after him.”

(7) HADITH NO. 7
Hasan bin Ali (Radiallahu anhu) reported: “I inquired from my maternal uncle (Sayyiditina Fatimah Radiallahu anha’s step brother) Hind bin Abi Haalah (Radiallahu anhu) about the noble features of the Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). He had often described the noble features of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) in detail. I felt that I should hear from him personally, some of the noble features of Raulullah (Sallallahu alalihe wasallam), so that I could make his discription a proof and testimony for myself and also memorise them, and, if possible, try to emulate and adopt them. (The age of Sayyidna Hasan (Radiallahu anhu) at the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam)’s death was seven years. In view of his age he did not have the opportunity to realise fully the features of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). The uncle descirbed the noble features by saying: “He had great qualities and attributes in him, others also held him in high estemm. His mubarak face shone like the full moon. He was slightly taller than a man of middle height, but shorter than a tall person. His mubarak head was moderately large. His mubarak hair was slightly twisted. If his hair became parted naturally in the middle he left it so, otherwise he did not habitually make an effort to part his hair in the middle. (This is a more respected transaltion).

A question may arise that Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) habitually parted his hair as stated in Ahadith. The Ulama say that this was in the early periods where Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) did not make an effort to do so. According to this humble servant, the answer to this is bit difficult, because it was the principal of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) to oppose the ways of the non- beleivers, and agree to the ways of Ahlul Kitab, he did not part his hair in the middle. For this reason, according to some Ulama, the bets translation will be that he only parted his hair in the middle if it could be easily done, and when this could not be done easily, and a comb etc. was needed to do it, then he did not part his hair in the middle. Occasionally he used to part his hair in the middle with a comb etc. When the hair of Rasulullah (Sallallalhu alaihe wasallallam) was abundant, it used to pass over his ear- lobes). Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had a very luminous complexion (colour), and a wide forehead. He had dense and fine hair on his eye brows. Both eye brows were seperate and did not meet each other in the middle. There was a vein between them that used to expand when he became angry. His nose was prominemt and had a nur and lustre on it. When one first looked at him, it seemed as if he had a large nose, but looking at it carefully showed that the lustre and beauty made it look large, otherwise in itself the nose was not large.”

His beard was full and dense. The pupil of his eye was black. His cheeks were full and full of flesh. The mouth of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was moderately wide. (He did not have a small mouth). His teeth were thin and bright. The front teeth had a slight space between them. There was a thin line of hair from the chest to the navel. His neck was beautiful and thin, like the neck of a statue shaved clean, the colour of which was clear, shining and beautiful like silver. All the parts of his body were of moderate size, and fully fleshed. His body was proportionately jointed. His chest and stomach were in line, but his chest was broad and wide. The space between his shoulders was wide. The bones of his joints were strong and large (denoting strength). When he removed his clothing, his body looked bright and had a lustre (or rather those parts of the body that were not covered by his clothing were also bright and shining, compared with those parts of the body that were covered by his clothing. According to this humble servant the latter translation is more appropriate). Between the chest and navel there was a thin line of hair. Besides this line neither the chest nor the stomach had other hair on it. Both sides, the shoulders and the upper portion of the chest had hair. His forearm was long and palms were wide. The palms and both feet were fully fleshed. The fingers and toes were moderately long. The soles of his feet were a bit deep. His feet were smooth, because of their cleanliness and smoothness the water did not remain there but flowed away quickly. When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigour, leaned slightly forward and placed his feet softly on the ground. He walked at a quick pace and took rather a long step. He did not take small steps. When he walked it seemed as if he was descending to a lower place. When he looked at something he turned his whole body towards it. He always looked down. His sight was focused more to the ground than towards the sky (A question may arise here that it is reported in Abu Daawud that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) usually looked towards the sky. Both are reconciled thus: His habit was to look down towards the ground, but he also waited for the wahi (revelation), therefore while waiting he often looked towards the sky. Otherwise he usually looked down towards the ground.

“Here the gaze of the killer hasn’t lifted modestly.
There the hand of the lover rest on the heart of the deceased”

His modest habit was to look at something with a light eye,i.e. he looked at a thing, with modesty and bashfulness, hence he did not stare at anything. While walking he asked the Sahabah (Radiallahu anhum) to walk in front, and he himself walked behind. He made salaam to whomsoever he met”

COMMENTARY
The Ulama say that Sayyidina (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) walked at the back because of his humbleness. According to this humble servant, if this is applied to his journeys it will be more appropriate. It was the noble habit of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) are described. Imam Tirmidi has mentioned this Hadith in many chapters where the speech and humility of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) are described.
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(8) HADITH NUMBER 8
Jaabir bin Samurah (Radiallahu anhu) says: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had a wide mouth. There were red lines in the whiteness of his eyes. He had little flesh on his heels.”

COMMENTARY
It is desirable for Arab men to have wide mouths. According to some a wide mouth means eloquence (fluency of language). The translation adopted in the description of the eyes has been taken from accepted sayings. However in this Hadith, Imam Tirmidi has translated this to mean wide eyes, as a narrator of this hadith has done, which according to the linguists is not correct.

“These intoxicated eyes on which thousands of my kindred be sacrificed.
That endless destroyer remains intoxicated day and night.”
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(9) HADITH NUMBER 9
It is related from Jaabir (Radiallahu anhu) that he said: ” I once saw Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) on the night of a full moon. On that night he wore red clothing. At times I looked at the full moon and at times at Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) . Ultimately I came to the conclusion that Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was more handsome, beautiful and more radiant than the full moon.”

“If the illumination in the temple and sanctuary is through the sun and moon, so what.
I desire you, what should I do with my sight.”

(10) HADITH NUMBER 10
Abu-Ishaaq (Radiallahu anhu) says: “A person once asked Baraa bin Aazib (Radiallahu anhu), “Was the face of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) shining like a sword?” He replied: “No but like a full-moon with its roundness.”

COMMENTARY
In making a comparison with a sword, it may have meant that Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had a long face. However the glitter of a sword has more whiteness than being luminous. For this reason Sayyidina Baraa (Radiallahu anhu) gave the similarity of the full moon, and not that of a sword. All these similarities are approximate descriptions, otherwise even a thousand moons cannot give the brightness of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam).
An Arab poet says: “If you want to describe a shortcoming of a beloved, then give the beloved a similitude of a full moon. This is enough to insult him.”
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(11) HADITH NUMBER 11
Abu Hurayrah (Radiallahu anhu) says: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was so clean, clear, beautiful and handsome, as though his body was covered and moulded in silver. His hair was slightly curled.”

COMMENTARY
In the first narration mentioned by Sayyidina Anas (Radiallahu anhu), it is denied that Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was very white. From the above hadith, it does not mean that he had white complexion like silver; rather he had a white and reddish complexion, in which the beauty and brightness was overwhelming.
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(12) HADITH NUMBER 12
Jaabir bin Abdullah (Radiallahu anhu) narrates from Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) that he said: “The Ambiyaa (Prophets) were shown to me. I saw Musa (Alaihis salaam), he had a thin body, like one from among the tribe of Shanu’ah. I saw Esa (Alaihis salaam). From among all those whom I have seen, he somewhat resembled Urwah bin Masud. I saw Ebrahim (Alaihis salaam). From among all those that I have seen,I, more or less, look like him. In the same manner I saw Jibra-eel (Alaihis salaam). From among all those I had seen, he more or less looked like Dihyah Kalbi.”

COMMENTARY
This was on the night of mi’raaj or in a dream. Imaam Bukhaari (Rahmatullahi alaihe) has narrated both, on the night of mi’raaj and also in a dream. There is no confusion or difficulty in these differences, because he may have seen them on both occasions. The translation of the description of Sayyidina Musa (Alaihis salaam) as having a light body, in my opinion, is made from more accurate sayings. Some Ulama in the translation of this sentence, have expressed other opinions. These three Ambiyaa (Prophets) were described because Sayyidina Musa (Alaihis salaam) and Sayyidina Esa (Alaihis salaam) are the nabis of the Bani Israel and Sayyidina Ebrahim (Alaihis salaam), besides being the great grandfather of Sayyidina Rsulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), was also accepted by all Arabs.
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(13) HADITH NUMBER 13
Sa’eed Jariri (Radiallahu anhu) says: “I heard Abu Tufayl (Radiallahu anhu) say: “There is no one left on the face of this Earth, besides me who had seen Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam).” I asked him to describe to me the noble features of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). He said: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had a white complexion, which was slightly reddish, and had a medium sized body.”

COMMENTARY
Sayyidina Abu Tufayl (Radiallahu anhu) was the last one among the Sahabah (Radiallahu anhum) to pass away. He died in the year 110 Hijri. That is why he said, that there was no one left besides him who had seen Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). The ulama say that he used the phrase `face of the earth’ because Sayyidina Esa (Alaihis salaam) is also from the ones who had seen Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), and is present in the skies (heavens).
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(14) HADITH NUMBER 14
Ibn Abbas (Radiallahu anhu) says: “The front teeth of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) were a bit wide (spread out). They were spaced out and not close together. When Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) talked, an illumination emitting from his teeth could be seen.”

COMMENTARY.
According to the Ulama, it is a well known fact that it was something similar to nur which emitted from his teeth.
The opinions of Allaamah Munaawi is that it was something sensory, and not a similarity, which emitted miraculously from between the teeth of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam).

With modesty lower the head and with grace, smile.
How easy it is for the beautiful to strike like lightning.

Everything of his noble features was perfect and beautiful. In the manner that is real and intrinsic beauty had reached its last stage, in the same manner his zaahiri (apparent) beauty had also reached its fullest and proper stage.

Allahumma sali ‘alaa Sayyidina Muhammadiw wa ‘alaa aalihi biqadri husnihi wa jamaalihi.

The Physical Description and Beauty of the Prophet

Ali (RA) described the noble features of the Prophet (may Allah peace and blessings be upon him): “Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) was neither assertively tall, nor reticently short, and he was an average-sized member of the population. His hair was neither crisply curled nor lank; it was loosely curled. He was neither plump nor chubby-cheeked, and in his face there was a rounded quality. He was white with a reddish tinge, dark black-eyed, with long eyelashes. He had splendid kneecaps, elbow joints and shoulder blades, free from hair. He had a strip of hair from the top of the chest to the navel. The palms of his hands and the soles of his feet were thickset. When he walked, he moved as if he were descending a declivity, and when he looked around, he looked around altogether. Between his shoulders was the Seal of Prophethood, for he is the Seal of the Prophets. He was the best of the people in generosity, the most truthful of the people in speech, the gentlest of them in temperament, and the noblest of them in social intercourse. If someone saw him unexpectedly, he was awestruck by him, and if someone associated with him knowingly, he loved him. His describer says: “I have never seen the like of him (Allah bless him and give him peace), neither before him nor after him.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

It is related from Jaabir (Radiallahu anhu) that he said: “I once saw Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam on the night of a full moon. On that night he wore red clothing. At times I looked at the full moon and at times at Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam. Ultimately I came to the conclusion that Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alayhi Wasallam was more handsome, beautiful and more radiant than the full moon.” (Shama’il Tirmidhi)

The physical beauty of the Prophet (saas)

The companions of the Prophet (saas) have passed on a great many detail about him, from the beauty of that blessed individual’s external appearance, his radiance and disposition that left those who beheld him in awe, to his smile, and many other beautiful aspects that Allah had manifested in him. There were a fair number of such companions, and they have given many details of his great beauty. Those Muslims who lived at the same time as the Prophet (saas) have described many aspects of the servant of Allah. While some of those describe him in broad terms, others have given long and detailed descriptions. Some of these accounts are as follows:

The Prophet (saas)’s external appearance and beauty

His companions described the beauty of the Prophet (saas) in these terms:

“The Prophet (saas) had a most handsome constitution. Some gave the smile of his beauty to that of the full moon…His nose was thin… His face was smooth…His beard was thick…His neck was the most beautiful…If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold… The place between his shoulders was wide.”67

Anas bin Malik (ra) says:

“The Messenger of Allah, was not excessively tall or short. He was not very pallid nor dark. He did not have curly hair or lank hair. Allah commissioned him at the age of forty. He stayed in Mecca ten years and at Medina for ten years and Allah the Mighty, the Majestic made him die when he was sixty. There were not twenty white hairs in his hair or beard, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.”68

A text in which Ali (ra) describes the physical and moral beauty and the perfect behavior of the Prophet (saas), as well as the love and respect people feel for him.

“Rasulullah (saas) was so clean, clear, beautiful and handsome.”69

Anas bin Malik (ra) says:

“The Prophet (saas) was neither tall nor short. He was handsome. His hair was neither delicate nor curly. He was neither very white, nor very brown.”70

Your friend is only Allah and His Messenger and those who believe.
(Surat al-Ma’ida: 55)

He is Allah – there is no god but Him. He is the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the All-Merciful, the Most Merciful.
(Surat al-Hashr: 22)

Baraa bin Aazib (ra) relates:

“I never saw someone more handsome than Rasullullah. His hair reached his shoulders. The portion between his two shoulders was wide. He was neither very tall nor very short.”71

Ibrahim b. Muhammed (ra), one of the grandsons of Ali (ra), informs us:

“When Ali (ra) described the Prophet (saas) he said:

‘He was neither very tall nor excessively short, but was a man of medium size. He had neither very curly nor flowing hair but a mixture of both… He was reddish-white, he had wide black eyes and long eyelashes. He had protruding joints and shoulder-blades… Between his shoulders was the seal of prophecy… He had a finer chest than anyone else, was truer in utterance than anyone else, had the gentlest nature and the noblest lineage. Those who saw him stood suddenly in awe of him and those who shared his acquaintance loved him. Those who described him said they had never seen anyone like him before or since’.”72

Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah, If anyone turns away, we did not send you to them as their keeper.
(Surat an-Nisa: 80)

Hassan (ra) says:

“He had great qualities and attributes, others also held him in high esteem. His blessed face shone like the full moon. He was slightly taller than a man of middle height, but shorter than a tall person…His blessed hair was slightly twisted. If his hair became parted naturally in the middle he left it so, otherwise he did not habitually make an effort to part his hair in the middle…Rasulullah (saas) had a very luminous complexion (color), and a wide forehead. His eye brows were of dense and fine hair …

… His neck was beautiful and thin, like the neck of a statue shaved clean, the color of which was clear, shining and beautiful like silver. All the parts of his body were of moderate size. His body was proportionately jointed…”73

Abu Huraira (ra) describes:

“The complexion of Rasulullah (saas) was white with redness in it. The blessed eyes of Rasulullah (saas) were extremely black. His eyelashes were long.”74

“His forehead was wide and the place between his eyebrows was bright like pure silver and eyes were black tinged with reddish hue. The hairs of his eye lashes were profuse… When he smiled or laughed, they (his teeth) shone like lightning. His lip was most beautiful…His beard was thick…His neck was most beautiful, neither long, nor short. If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold. His chest was broad. It was even like a mirror and white like the moon light… His shoulders were wide. His palms were softer than wool.”75

Take a charity from their wealth to purify and cleanse them and pray for them. Your prayers bring relief to them. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
(Surat at-Tawba: 103)

Umm Ma’bad (ra), who was known for her generosity, uprightness and courage, was visited by the Prophet (saas) during the Prophet (saas)’s migration from Mecca to Medina, but failed to recognize him. However, she described him to her husband, who recognized the Prophet (saas) from her description:

“He was innocently bright and had a broad countenance. His manners were fine… He had black attractive eyes… His hair glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was very commanding. His head was well formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime. The stranger was fascinated from the distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him, than this fascination was changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were rosary of beads. His stature was neither too high nor too small. He was singularly bright and fresh. He was always surrounded by his Companions. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued a commandment, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander.”76

As we can discern from those who saw him in person, the Prophet (saas) was extraordinarily handsome, with a finely proportioned body and a face that took one’s breath away. He also had a very athletic and powerful build.

The Prophet (saas)’s appearance

Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, an important scholar from Ottoman times, wrote a study that effectively summarized descriptions of the Prophet (saas)’s features. That appeared in Part IV of the Qisas al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets), under the heading “Some Attributes of the Prophet Muhammad (saas)”:

“The blessed one had a beautiful appearance, his limbs were in perfect proportion, his body was well-formed, his forehead and chest and the distance between his shoulders were broad. His neck was slender and pure as silver, his shoulders, biceps and calves were large and thick, his wrists were long, his fingers also long, and his hands and fingers rather thick. His blessed skin was softer than silk.

On his perfect countenance were a well-proportioned head, curved eyebrows, a long nose and an oval face.

His eyelashes were long, his eyes black and beautiful, the space between his largish eyebrows was clear, though his eyebrows were close together.

That chosen Prophet (saas) was shining in appearance. In other words, he was neither light nor dark, but somewhere between the two, white like a red rose, light and limpid, and the light shone from his face. His teeth were as white as pearls and bright, and the light gleamed from his front teeth as he spoke. When he laughed, it was as if his mouth gave off rays like soft lightning…

His senses were exceedingly powerful. He could hear from a long way off and see further than anyone. In essence, he had a body formed in perfection and uniqueness, and blessed … Anyone suddenly seeing him would be consumed with love, and anyone speaking with him would feel great love in his heart and soul. The wise respected him in accordance with their degree. He greatly honoured his relatives. He would not, however, treat them better than those more worthy than them.

He treated his servants well. Whatever he wore or ate, he would give to them to wear and eat.

He was generous, beneficial, compassionate, forgiving, brave and mild. In speech, he kept to his word. In essence, his excellent morality, sharp powers of reasoning were greater than those of all other people and worthy of great praise.

In eating and apparel he contented himself with the very poorest degree and refrained from excess.”77
Another text in which Ali (ra) describes the Prophet’s superior morality, his astonishing beauty and the perfection of his behavior.

The Prophet (saas)’s seal of Prophethood

Allah favored the Prophet Muhammad (saas) over all beings, and declared him to be “the Final Seal of the Prophets.” (Surat al-Ahzab: 40) No prophet would be sent after him, and the Qur’an would be the last revelation to guide people onto the true way. Allah manifested that unique feature of the Prophet (saas) with a mark on his body.

In Islamic sources and oral accounts, that sign between the Prophet (saas)’s shoulder blades is known as “the seal of Prophethood.” It is reported by Wahb bin Munebbih (ra) that the other prophets also had similar marks, but that that of the Prophet (saas) was different:

“Allah never sent down a prophet who did not have the sign of prophethood on his right hand. The Prophet Muhammad (saas) was the only exception to this. His sign of prophethood was (not on his right hand) but between his shoulder blades. When asked about it, the Prophet said, ‘This mark between my shoulder blades is like the marks on the prophets before me’ …”78

Jaabir bin Samurah (ra) relates that:

“I saw the Seal of Prophethood of Rasullullah (saas) between his two shoulders, the size of which was like that of a pigeon’s egg.”79

Ibrahim bin Muhammad (ra), one of the grandchildren of Ali (ra), reports:

“Whenever Ali (ra) described the nobel features of Rasulullah (saas), he used to say:

‘The seal of Prophethood was situated between his shoulders. He was a last of all prophets’.”80 Abu Nadrah (ra) says:
So believe in Allah and His Messenger and in the Light We have sent down. Allah is aware of what you do.
(Surat at-Taghabun: 8)

“I asked Abu Sa’eed Khudari (ra) about the Seal of Prophethood of Rasulullah (saas) He said: ‘It was a piece of raised flesh that was on Rasulullah (saas)’s back’.”81

“The place between his shoulders were wide and therein there was impression or seal of Prophethood inclined a little towards the right shoulder.”82

Another report comes from Assib bin Yazid (ra):

“I saw the seal in between his shoulders.”83

The Prophet (saas)’s hair

There are different descriptions of the length of the Prophet (saas)’s hair. It is natural that there should be discrepancies between them, as the people these accounts have come down from saw him at different times, when his hair may have been of different lengths. Yet, what can be recognized from these descriptions was that the Prophet (saas)’s hair was at ear-level at its shortest and at shoulder-length at its longest.

Anas bin Malik (ra) recalls :

“The hair of Rasulullah (saas) reached till half of his ears.”84

Aisha (ra) reports:

“The blessed hair of Rasulullah (saas) was longer than those that reached the ear lobes, and shorter than those that reached the shoulders.”85

Baraa bin Aazib (ra) says:

“Rasulullah (saas) was of average height, and the portion between the two shoulders was wide. His hair reached his ear lobes.”86

Umm Haani, the daughter of Abu Taalib (ra) offers the following description:

“Rasulullah (saas) came to Mecca once after the hijrah (migration). His blessed hair had four plaits.”87

Know that the Messenger of Allah is among you. If he were to obey you in many things, you would suffer for it. However, Allah has given you love of faith and made it pleasing to your hearts, and has made disbelief, deviance and disobedience hateful to you. People such as these are rightly guided.
(Surat al-Hujurat: 7)

The grooming of the Prophet (saas)’s hair and beard

The Prophet (saas) attached the greatest importance to cleanliness, and therefore, to his hair and beard too. It is reported in some sources that he always carried with him a comb, mirror, miswak (a small natural toothbrush), tooth-pick, scissors and a kuhl bottle.88 The Prophet (saas) advised his companions to do the same, and said: “He who has hair should honor it.”89 Some other reports that have reached us of his hair and beard are:

Hassan (ra) said:

“He had a thick, dense beard.”90

Anas bin Malik (ra) reports:

“Sayyidina Rasulullah (saas) often rubbed oil in his head…”91

Simak bin Harb (ra) reports:

“Jaabir bin Samurah (ra) was asked a question regarding the white hair of Rasulullah He replied: ‘When Rasulullah (saas) oiled his hair, it (white hair) did not show. When he did not oil it, it showed’.”92

The Prophet (saas) set an example for the believers with the importance he attached to his appearance and cleanliness. One account describes the Prophet (saas)’s attitude to such matters:

“The Prophet (saas) once intended to go to his companions and so he put on his turban and dressed his hairs…He said: ‘Yes, Allah loves the actions of His servant who refines his body in order to meet his friends and brothers’.”93

The Prophet (saas)’s manner of dress

His companions have handed down a great many details about the Prophet (saas)’s manner of dress. In addition to these, the Prophet (saas)’s advice to the believers about how they should dress reveal the importance he attached to this subject. For example, one hadith reports him as saying:

“No one who has even an atom’s-weight of pride in his heart will enter Paradise.” A man asked him, “What if he likes his clothes and shoes to look good?” (Meaning, is this counted as pride?) The Prophet (saas) said: “Allah is beautiful and loves beauty. Pride means denying the truth and looking down on other people.”94

He regarded dressing well and looking good as a demonstration of the blessings of Allah:

“Allah loves to see the result of His blessing on His creatures.”95

Jundub ibn Makith (r.a.) said:

“Whenever a delegation came to meet the Messenger of Allah, he would wear his best clothes and order his leading Companions to do likewise. I saw the Prophet (saas) on the day that the delegation of Kindah came to meet him; he was wearing a Yemeni garment, and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were dressed similarly.”96

Another hadith relates:

“Eat what you like, and wear what you like provided that it is free from two things : extravagance and vainglory.”97

The Prophet (saas) would immediately warn any of his companions who were unkempt or failed to care for their appearance. One story on the subject is from ‘Ata ‘ibn Yassar (ra):

“The Messenger of Allah was in the mosque, when a man with unkempt hair and an untidy beard came in. The Prophet (saas) pointed to him, as if indicating to him that he should tidy up his hair and beard. The man went and did so, then returned. The Prophet (saas) said, ‘Is this not better than that any one of you should come with unkempt hair?'”98

According to the hadith narrated by one of the companions of the Prophet (saas), the Prophet (saas) told his Companions, when they were travelling to meet some brothers in faith:

“You are going to visit your brothers, so repair your saddles and make sure that you are dressed well, so that you will stand out among people like an adornment, for Allah does not love ugliness.”99

Some of the information that was conveyed through the inner circle of the Prophet (saas) about his clothing are below:

Umar (ra) relates:

“I saw the Messenger of Allah (saas) ask for a new garment. He put it on, and when it reached his knees he said, ‘Praise be to Allah, Who has given me clothes with which to cover myself and make myself look beautiful in this life.'”100

Umm Salama (ra) reports that:

“The Holy Prophet (saas) liked kurta (long shirt) most.”101

Qurrah bin Ilyaas (ra) describes:

“I came with a group from the tribe of Muzeenah to pay allegiance to Rasulullah (saas). The button loop of Rasulullah (saas) was open.”102

Al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib (ra) states:

“I have never seen someone with long hair and red clothing more handsome than Rasullullah (saas). His hair reached his shoulders.”103

Another report comes from Fazl ibn Abbas (ra):

“The Holy Prophet (saas) said: ‘Adopt white clothes; it is the best attire.'”104

Aisha (ra) reported that:

“Allah’s Apostle (saas) went out one morning wearing a cloak made of (camel’s or sheep’s) black hair with patterns of camel saddles upon it.”105

The Prophet (saas)’s outdoor clothes

Ubayd bin Khaalid (ra) reports that:

“I was once going to Madina. I heard a person from behind me say: ‘Wear your lungi (loose dress) higher because it avoids physical and spiritual impurities.’ (The lungi will remain cleaner and will not become dirty by being dragged on the ground.) When I turned to see who was talking I saw that it was Rasulullah (saas).”106

Salamah bin Akwa (ra) informs us that:

“Uthmaan (ra) wore his lungi till the middle of his shin and said: ‘This is how my master Rasulullah (saas) wore his lungi.'”107

The Prophet (saas)’s ring and seal
The seal of the Prophet (saas) is available in the Topkapi Palace.

Anas bin Malik (ra) says:

“Rasulullah (saas) had a ring made of silver and its (inlaid) gem was also of silver.”108

When the Prophet (saas) wanted to write to the leaders of foreign states, he ordered a seal-ring to be made.

“Rasullullah (saas) therefore had a ring made, the whiteness of which is still before my eyes.”109

“The inscription engraved on the ring of Rasulullah (saas) was ‘Muhammad Rasulullah,’ of which in the first line was engraved ‘Muhammad,’ in the second line ‘Rasul,’ and in the third line ‘Allah’.”110

The Prophet (saas)’s manner of walking

Abu Huraira (ra) reports:

“I did not see anyone more handsome than Rasulullah (saas). It was as if the brightness of the sun had shone from his blessed face. I did not see anyone walk faster than him, as is the earth folded for him. A few moments ago he would be here, and then there. We found it difficult to keep pace when we walked with him and he walked at his normal pace.”111

One of Ali (ra)’s grandchildren, Ibrahim bin Muhammad (ra), says that the Prophet (saas) had an easy manner of walking:

When ‘Ali (ra) described Rasulullah (saas), he used to say: ‘When he walked, because of the speed and force of the legs, it seemed as if he was descending from a high place’.”112

Hassan (ra) describes how:

“When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigour, leaned, slightly forward and placed his feet softly on the ground. He walked at a quick pace and took a rather long step. He did not take small steps. When he walked it seemed as if he was descending to a lower place. When he looked at something, he turned his whole body towards it. He always looked down. His blessed glance was focused more to the ground than towards the sky. His noble habit was to look at something with a slight glance. He made salaam (greeted) first to whomsoever he met.”113
(Left) Painting called Lilium Auratum. 1871. (Right) The City of Fayoum by Gérome

The Prophet (saas)’s manner of sitting

Qaylah bint Makhramah (ra) reports:

“I saw Rasulullah (saas) in the masjid (in a very humble posture) sitting. Due to his awe-inspiring personality, I began shivering.”114

Jaabir bin Samurah (ra) says:

“I observed Rasulullah (saas) lean on a pillow, which was on his left side.”115

Who could do greater wrong than someone who invents a lie against Allah
when he has been called to Islam?
Allah does not guide wrongdoing people. (Surat as-Saff: 7)

The Prophet (saas)’s way of speaking

The Prophet (saas) was a man known for his effective, wise and concise manner of speaking. His messages had a great effect on people, and everyone took great pleasure in talking with him. A number of accounts that have come down from his companions also confirm that fact. These are some of them:

“The Prophet (saas) was the greatest of the Arabs in oratory and beauty of speech. He said: ‘I am the greatest orator among the Arabs’.”116
The Mosque of Sultan Hassan (right) by David Roberts.

Aisha (ra) describes the Prophet (saas)’s way of speaking thus:

“The speech of Rasulullah (saas) was not quick and continuous as that of yours. He spoke clearly, word by word.”117

“They said: ‘The Messenger of Allah used to talk little and every thing was expressed in this brief talk. In his speech, there was no defect of excess or brevity. The words came one after another like pearls. Whoever heard them remembered them. He was the sweetest in talk among his companions. He used to keep silent for long and not talk without necessity. He used not to talk evil words and what he talked was just.”118

“He did not use ornamental words….”119

“… His companions did never dispute before him.”120

“He used to smile much before his companions…”121

Aisha (ra) again says:

“He spoke in such a way that the words were spaced out so that those who sat with him remembered them.”122

Abdullah bin Haarith (ra) reports that:

“I have not seen anyone who makes a person more cheerful than Rasulullah (saas).”123

Anas bin Malik (ra) tells us the following:

“Rasulullah (saas) used to mingle with us and joke.”124

The Prophet (saas)’s pleasing scent

The Prophet (saas) attached great importance to cleanliness. He always smelt very fresh, clean and pleasant, and recommended that Muslims do the same. Accounts that have reached us from his companions give further details of this aspect of the Prophet (saas):

Jaabir bin Samura (ra) states:

“Whenever the Holy Prophet tread on any path, when someone passed by later, that they could recognize that the prophet had passed by there because they could smell the fragrance of his body.”125

From Anas bin Malik (ra):

“I never felt a silk cloth, nor pure silk, nor any other thing softer than the palm of Rasulullah (saas). Nor did I smell any musk or any other fragrance, more sweet smelling than the fragrance of Rasullullah (saas).”126

Anas bin Malik (r.a) reports:

“I never smelt ambergris or musk as fragrant as the fragrance of the body of Allah’s Messenger (saas) and I never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of Allah’s Messenger (saas).”127

In Qisas al-Anbiya, the Prophet (saas) was described in this way:

“His body was clean and his scent beautiful. Whether or not he had used scent, his skin always had a lovely scent to it. If someone shook hands or conversed with him, or showed his friendship or affection, he would smell that clean scent all day, and if he laid that sacred hand on a child’s head, that child could be distinguished from other children by that clean scent.”128

The Prophet (saas)’s favorite foods

“He used not to take any hot food.”129

“Meat was his most favorite curry.”130

“The Holy Prophet (saas), amongst all other foods, liked pumpkin.”131

“He used to eat the meat of hunted birds.”132

… they will have Gardens with rivers flowing under them. When they are given fruit there as provision, they will say, ‘This is what we were given before.’ But they were only given a simulation of it.
(Surat al-Baqara: 25)

“He liked dried dates among dates.”133

Aisha (ra) had this to say about the food the Prophet (saas) enjoyed:

“Rasulullah (saas) loved halva and honey.”134

“Among foods, he liked mutton, broth, pumpkins, sweet things, honey, dates, milk, cream, melons, grapes and cucumbers. He also liked cold water.”135

She adds:

“Rasulullah (saas) ate watermelon with fresh dates.”136
Garden, by Pieter Gysels (1621-1690)

“He never condemned the food. He used to eat what he liked and did not eat what he did not like.”137

“Rasulullah (saas) loved the meat of the forequarter.”138

These are some of the things the Prophet (saas) said about certain foods:

“What a nice curry vinegar is.”139

“The Prophet (saas) said that mushroom is a good cure for the eyes, it also arrests paralysis.”140

“Illnesses are cured by means of three things: (one of them) is a drink of honey.”141

“Use olive oil as a food and ointment for it comes from a blessed tree.”142
Still-life painting by Ibrahim Safi.

What the Prophet (saas) liked to drink

Aisha tells us that:

“The drink most liked by Rasulullah (saas) was that which was sweet and cold.”143

“Nabeez was prepared from dried grapes for the Prophet (saas) and dates were, also, put in it, or it was prepared from dried dates, and grapes, too, were put in it. “144

“The best of drinks to the Messenger of Allah was sweet cold drink.”145

“The Holy Prophet (saas) said; besides milk there is nothing else that serves the purpose of both milk and water.”146

This is what the Prophet (saas) had to say about milk:

“When one of you eats food, he should say: ‘O Allah, bless us in it, and give us food (or nourishment) better than it.’ When he is given milk to drink he should say: ‘O Allah! Bless us in it and give us more of it, for no food or drink satisfies like milk’.”147

What the Prophet (saas) said about water

The Prophet (saas) took great care to distribute water, particularly on journeys. On one particular journey, for instance, he stopped somewhere and asked for water from those around him. After washing his hands and face, he drank from the water, and told his companions; “pour some of its water on your faces and chests.”148

After drinking water, he prayed:

“All praise is due to Allah Who has made it delicious and sweet by His grace and has not made it either salty or unsavory.”149

On another occasion, the Prophet (saas) said:

“Water was created pure and nothing makes it impure except that which changes its color, taste and smell.”150

Some of the Prophet (saas)’s finer traits

Imam Ghazzali, known as “Hujjatul Islam,” collected and set out some of the Prophet (saas)’s traits as related by such great Islamic scholars as Tirmidhi, Tabarani, Muslim, Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawood and Ibn Maja:

What is the Garden promised to those who have done their duty like? It has rivers flowing under it and its foodstuffs and cool shade never fail. That is the final fate of those who have done their duty. But the final fate of the disbelievers is the Fire.
(Surat ar-Ra’d: 35)

“The Holy Prophet (saas) was the most patient among men, the bravest, the best judge, and he who pardoned most. … he was the most charitable man. He did not pass a single night hoarding a single dirham or dinar. Whenever any excess money came to him and if he did not then get anyone to accept it as charity, he did not return home till he gave it to the poor and the needy. He did not store up for more than a year the provision of his family members which Allah was pleased to give him. He used to take one fifth of what easily came to him out of dates and wheat. What remained in excess, he used to give in charity. He used to give away in charity to him who begged of him of anything, even out of his stored up provision.

He did not take any revenge for personal wrongs but he used take it for preservation of the honor of Allah.

He used to speak the truth even though it was sometimes a cause of trouble to himself and his companions.

He was the most modest, without pride, and his tongue was most eloquent without prolongation of speech. His constitution was the most beatiful. No worldly duties could keep him busy.

He used to go even to a distant place to see the sick, loved scents and hated a stench or bad smell, sat with the poor and the destitute, ate with them, honored those possessing honor, advised them to do good and show kindness to relatives. He did not treat harshly to anybody and accepted excuses offered to him.

He accepted sports and pastimes as lawful, played with his wives and held races with them…. He did not hate the poor for their poverty nor fear the kings for their mighty power. He used to call the people, high or low towards Allah. Allah adorned him with all the qualities and good administration

At the time when the Quran was being revealed to him, he used to smile most. When something happened, he entrusted it to Allah, kept himself free from his own strength and ability and said in invocation: ‘O Allah, show me truth in a true manner or give me grace to give it up. You guide to the straight path whomsoever You will.’

Allah revealed the Quran to him and through it He taught him good manners.” 151

For this We sent a Messenger to you from among you to recite Our Signs to you and purify you and teach you the Book and Wisdom and teach you things you did not know before.
(Surat al-Baqara: 151)

Hind bin Abi Haalah described prophet Muhammad saying, “He had great qualities and attributes in him, others also held him in high estemm. His blessed face shone like the full moon.

He was slightly taller than a man of middle height, but shorter than a tall person.

His head was moderately large.

His hair was slightly twisted. If his hair became parted naturally in the middle he left it so, otherwise he did not habitually make an effort to part his hair in the middle. Occasionally he used to part his hair in the middle with a comb etc. When the hair of the prophet was abundant, it used to pass over his ear- lobes)

His had a very luminous complexion color with pinky cheeks and lips,

He had a wide forehead.

He had dense and fine hair on his eye brows. Both eye brows were seperate and did not meet each other in the middle. There was a vein between them that used to expand when he became angry.

His nose was prominent and had a luster on it. When one first looked at him, it seemed as if he had a large nose, but looking at it carefully showed that the luster and beauty made it look large, otherwise in itself the nose was not large.

His beard was full and dense.

The pupil of his eye was black.

His cheeks were full and full of flesh.

His mouth was moderately wide.

His teeth were thin and bright. The front teeth had a slight space between them.

There was a thin line of hair from the chest to the navel.

His neck was beautiful and thin, like the neck of a statue shaved clean, the colour of which was clear, shining and beautiful like silver.

All the parts of his body were of moderate size, and fully fleshed.

His body was proportionately jointed.

His chest and stomach were in line, but his chest was broad and wide.

The space between his shoulders was wide.

The bones of his joints were strong and large (denoting strength).

Between the chest and navel there was a thin line of hair. Besides this line neither the chest nor the stomach had other hair on it. Both sides, the shoulders and the upper portion of the chest had hair.

His forearm was long and palms were wide and fleshed.

His both feet were fully fleshed.

The fingers and toes were moderately long.

The soles of his feet were a bit deep.

His feet were smooth, because of their cleanliness and smoothness the water did not remain there but flowed away quickly. When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigor, leaned slightly forward and placed his feet softly on the ground.

He walked at a quick pace and took rather a long step. He did not take small steps. When he walked it seemed as if he was descending to a lower place.

When he looked at something he turned his whole body towards it.

He always looked down. His sight was focused more to the ground than towards the sky. His modest habit was to look at something with a light eye, i.e. he looked at a thing, with modesty and bashfulness, hence he did not stare at anything.

While walking he asked his companions to walk in front, and he himself walked behind. He greeted whomsoever he met.”

THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF THE PROPHET

Face:
“His face shone like the moon.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“His face was round like the moon.” – (Bara bin Azib)
“His face was not quite round but inclined to roundness.” – (Hazrat Ali(R.A))
“Broad forehead, slanting thick brows parted in the middle. A vein protruded between the two parts which became more prominent in anger.” (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Color:
“Neither white like lime, nor tanned, but brown with whiteness predominant.” – (Hazrath Anas(R.A))
“White, reddish.” – (Hazrath Ali(R.A))
“White but wholesome.” – (Abu Tufail)
“White and bright.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Eyes:
“Black, with long eyelashes.” (Hazrath Ali)
“Black and drooping. Habit of looking from the corner of the eyes in shyness.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“Red lines in the white parts, wide sockets, and natural grey corners.” – (Jabir bin Samra)

Nose:
“Somewhat high with unique brightness whereby it looked large at first sight.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Cheeks:
“Even and soft, a bit of flesh drooping at the lower end.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Mouth:
“Wide.” – (Jabir bin Samra)
“Moderately wide.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Teeth:
“Thin and bright, symmetrical, openings in front teeth.” – (Hazrath Ibn Abbas)
“When talking a light seemed to sparkle from the teeth.” – (Hazrath Anas)
Beard:
“Full and thick.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)
Neck:
“Thin and long, beautifully chiselled like a statue Colour of the neck white like silver and handsome.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Head:
“Large but symmetrical.”- (Hind bin Abi Hala)

Hair:
“Neither quite straight, nor sheep like.” – (Qatada)
“Slightly curly.” – (Hazrath Anas)
“Thick, sometimes touching ear lobes and sometimes reaching upto shoulders.”- (Bara bin Azib)
“Parted in the middle.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“The body did not have much hair. A line of hair running from the chest to the navel.” – (Hazrath Ali and Hind bin Abi Hala)
“There were some hair on shoulders, arms and upper chest.” (Hind bin Abi Hala)

General Structure:
“Body well built, bones joining limbs large and strong.”- (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“Body was not fat.” (Hazrath Ali)
“Neither tall nor short, small but middle-sized.” – (Hazrath Anas)
“Inclined to be tall. Among the people he appeared to rise higher than others.” – (Bara bin Azib)
“The abdomen was not protruding.” – (Umme-e-Mabad)
“Despite has poor conditions and lack of proper food his body was stronger and more virile than those of better nourished persons.” – (Al-Mawahib)
“I have not seen a braver and stronger man than the Prophet.” – (Ibn Umar)

Shoulder and Chest:
“Chest broad and even with the abdomen.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“Chest broad.” – (Bara bin Azib)
“Width between shoulders more than usual.” – (Hind bin Abi Hala and Bara bin Azib)
“Portion between shoulders fleshy.” – (Hazrath Ali)
Arms and Hands :“Wrists large, palms wide and fingers symmetrically large.” (Hind bin Abi Hala)
“I have not touched any thick or thin silk or anything else which was softer and fleshier than Prophet’s palms.” – (Hazrath Anas)

Calfs and Feet:
“Calfs were not fleshy but symmetrical.” – (Jabir bin Samra)
“Feet were fleshy, lower parts of feet little hollow and feet so smooth that they could not retain water.” – (Jabir bin Samra)
“Very little flesh on heels.” – (Jabir bin Samra)

The most graphic description of the Prophet was given by an old woman at whose house the Prophet stopped on his way from the cave of Thaur to Medina and her goats gave so much milk that the Prophet and his companions were fully satisfied and yet there was much left over.
When the old woman’s husband returned home and expressed his surprise, the woman gave the description of the Prophet as follows:
“Handsome features, bright face, likeable temperament, neither the abdomen protruding nor hair of the head fallen out, graceful, handsome, eyes black and large, hair long and thick, voice clear, long neck, bright black of the eye, natural grey corners, thin and drooping eyelashes, black and curly hair, silent with dignity inclined to cordiality, graceful and captivating at a distance and very sweet and most handsome from near, talk sweet and words clear, neither more nor less than necessary, all talk consistent, middle-sized, neither short so as to look insignificant nor tall to look unbecoming, a fresh twig of handsome plant, charming to look at and well- built. His companions are so devoted that they always surround him, quietly listen to what he says and promptly obey what he orders. Obeyed, liked, neither verbose nor cryptic.”

His companions described the beauty of the Prophet (s) in these terms:
“The Prophet (s) had a most handsome constitution. Some gave the smile of his beauty to that of the full moon,His nose was thin, His face was smooth,His beard was thick,His neck was the most beautiful,If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold. The place between his shoulders was wide.

Anas bin Malik (ra) says:
The Messenger of Allah (SWT), was not excessively tall or short. He was not very pallid nor dark. He did not have curly hair or lank hair. Allah (SWT) commissioned him at the age of forty. He stayed in Mecca ten years and at Medina for ten years and Allah (SWT) the Mighty, the Majestic made him die when he was sixty. There were not twenty white hairs in his hair or beard, may Allah (SWT) bless him and grant him peace.

Anas bin Malik (ra) says:
“The Prophet (s) was neither tall nor short. He was handsome. His hair was neither delicate nor curly. He was neither very white, nor very brown.

Abu Huraira (ra) describes:
“The complexion of Rasulullah (s) was white with redness in it. The blessed eyes of Rasulullah (s) were extremely black. His eyelashes were long.

Umm Ma’bad (ra), who was known for her generosity, uprightness and courage, was visited by the Prophet (s) during the Prophet (s) migration from Mecca to Medina, but failed to recognize him. However, she described him to her husband, who recognized the Prophet (s) from her description:

“He was innocently bright and had a broad countenance. His manners were fine… He had black attractive eyes… His hair glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was very commanding. His head was well formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime. The stranger was fascinated from the distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him, than this fascination was changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were rosary of beads. His stature was neither too high nor too small. He was singularly bright and fresh.

He was always surrounded by his Companions. Whenever he uttered something, the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued a commandment, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander. (Shaykh Safi ur-Rahmân al-Mubarakpoori, The Prophet’s Attributes and Manners From “The Sealed Nectar”, Islam’s Youth Voice)

Abu Huraira (ra) reports:
“I did not see anyone more handsome than Rasulullah (s). It was as if the brightness of the sun had shone from his blessed face. I did not see anyone walk faster than him, as is the earth folded for him. A few moments ago he would be here, and then there. We found it difficult to keep pace when we walked with him and he walked at his normal pace.”

“When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigour, leaned, slightly forward and placed his feet softly on the ground. He walked at a quick pace and took a rather long step. He did not take small steps. When he walked it seemed as if he was descending to a lower place. When he looked at something, he turned his whole body towards it. He always looked down. His blessed glance was focused more to the ground than towards the sky. His noble habit was to look at something with a slight glance. He made salaam (greeted) first to whomsoever he met.” (Shamaa-il Tirmidhi, Islamic Book Service Publications, New Delhi, 2000, p. 118)

Hassan (ra) says:
“He had great qualities and attributes, others also held him in high esteem. His blessed face shone like the full moon. He was slightly taller than a man of middle height, but shorter than a tall person…His blessed hair was slightly twisted. If his hair became parted naturally in the middle he left it so, otherwise he did not habitually make an effort to part his hair in the middle. Rasulullah (s) had a very luminous complexion (color), and a wide forehead. His eye brows were of dense and fine hair

… His neck was beautiful and thin, like the neck of a statue shaved clean, the color of which was clear, shining and beautiful like silver. All the parts of his body were of moderate size. His body was proportionately jointed.

“His forehead was wide and the place between his eyebrows was bright like pure silver and eye-balls were black tinged with reddish hue. The hairs of his eye lashes were profuse, When he smiled or laughed, they (his teeth) shone like lightning. His lip was most beautiful,His beard was thick,His neck was most beautiful, neither long, nor short. If the rays of the sun fell on his neck, it appeared like a cup of silver mixed with gold. His chest was broad. It was even like a mirror and white like the moon light,His shoulders were wide. His palms were softer than wool.

Allah and the angels sends durood on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) Oh you who believe you too send durood on the Prophet’
Al Quran 33:56

The message of Allah Ta’ala to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has come down to us in the form of the Holy Quran and the teachings of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) have reached us in the form of the Ahadith. Let us see what both the Holy

Quran and Ahadith say about Durood Shareef (Salawat):
Innal llaha wa Malaa’ikatahu Yu salluna allan nabiyi. Ya Ayyuhal ladheena aamanu
sallu alaihi wasallimu tasleema.

Almighty Allah says: “Surely Allah and His Angels send blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). O you who believe! Send Blessings (Durood) and Salutations (Salaams) on the Prophet with worthy Salutation”. (Surah al-Ahzab: 56)

In this verse of the Holy Quran, Almighty Allah, His Malaa’ikah (Angles) and the Muslims have been mentioned as sending Durood upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). So, Durood Shareef is actually “a Du’a in praise of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).”

Hadhrat Anas (radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who reads a single Durood upon me, Almighty Allah blesses him ten times, ten of his sins are forgiven, and he is increased ten times in stages (internally). (Mishkaat)

Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Ma’sud (radi Allahu anhu) also narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “On the Day of Qiyamah, the closest to me from among the people will be those who have read the most amount of Durood Shareef”. (Tirmidhi)

It is now evident that the recitation of Durood Shareef (Salawat) is in perfect obedience to the Divine Command and in complete conformity with the teachings of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam. There is no scope to choose anything else when we have with us the words of Allah Ta’ala and His Apostle, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)

What is Durood Sharif?

Divine blessings on Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is one of the highest and the most meritorious act in our Deen. This “Divine Blessings” is called Durood Shareef. When Almighty Allah sends Durood and Salaams upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), He is actually blessing him. When the Malaa’ikah and the Muslims send Durood and Salaams to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they are actually showing

Almighty Allah their respect for the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Muslims hope that, through the blessings of the Durood and Salaams, Almighty Allah will forgive them of their sins and increase their status in this world and in the Hereafter. The Malaa’ikah hope that Almighty Allah will increase their status.

Durood is a sure means of Allah Ta’ala granting blessings, peace, prosperity and favours of great magnitude on one who recites Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). The reciter of Durood Shareef receives all the benefits in this world and utmost gain in the next world with addition to the love of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

The invocation of Blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is styled in Arabic as “Salawat”, in Persian as “Durood”, and in Urdu as “Salawat-o-Salaam”.

The reciter of Durood Shareef will, after some time, come to realise by himself that it is the spontaneous outpouring of his heart before the Great Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam, whose love and attachment is needed to get all the present day problems solved and obtain mercy in the next world. The more Durood Shareef we recite, the greater the gain and benefit will be achieved in both the worlds.

Hadhrat Shaikh-e-Akbar Mo’inuddin ibn Arabi (radi Allahu anhu) has stated that, “Those who claim to love and revere the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) should increase their recital of the Durood Shareef in patience and perseverance until, through the mercy of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they have the opportunity of witnessing his blessed countenance”.

The special and exclusive aspect of this prayer is that Durood Shareef is immediately accepted by Allah Ta’ala. No one can doubt its acceptance, as Durood Shareef is being recited by Allah Ta’ala too. Not only this, but He has revealed this secret in the Holy Quran by saying: Wara fa’na laka dhikrak – “Have I not exalted thy name.” Muslims are indeed very fortunate . Allah Ta’ala chose for them Islam as a religion, declared to be comprehensive and final for mankind.

The person chose to deliver this message in this specific form and extra-ordinary style of love and hope was the most beloved of Allah Ta’ala and became the Light of Divinity, to be shed upon the entire universe. This Light devastated all the domains of darkness and depression. By reciting Durood Shareef (Salawat) we invite Light and drive away all darkness from our inner soul. Our mind becomes soft and love saturated.

If there is softness in everything, it tends beauty to it. People become ugly owing to lack of this essential beauty of the inner part of the mind. This ugliness cannot be glossed over by any amount of cosmetics. It is the Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which works wonders.

In the same manner, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) taught us Durood Shareef to attain salvation, perfect peace and maximum gain in this world as well as the next. The soul is the soil where the faith of Allah is to be implanted firmly and faithfully which requires continuous recitation of Durood Shareef to thrive and flourish. We have been told by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that Durood Shareef is itself Light and when Light enters the soul every aspiration is achieved and every goal is won. Nothing remains thereafter to worry about.

Human spirit today is depressed everywhere and mankind has come to the edge of destruction, decay and devastation. Everyone is engulfed in untold miseries and tragedies of a very great magnitude. Troubles and tortures, pain, poverty, hunger, ill-health, frustrations and accidents have broken the back of the human society. All this can evaporate with the recitation of Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who has clearly proclaimed that Durood Shareef is the panacea of all ills and that if any one comes across a calamity he should recite Durood Shareef in the maximum number.

Allah Ta’ala has promised that if anyone recites Durood only once, He showers ten blessings on the reciter immediately. It is narrated that once Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) walked a very long distance in the desert during summer at noon. He lost his consciousness due to thirst and hunger. After a while, when he regained his consciousness, Allah Ta’ala sent Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to go and inquire from Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) if he was thirsty or not. Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) replied that he was thirsty.

Allah Ta’ala told him that the thirst on the Day of Judgement will be a million times more than what Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam) experienced. Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) was told that if he wished to get rid of that thirst on the hottest Day of Judgement, he would have to do one thing. When Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) enquired as to what should be done, Allah Ta’ala told him that he should recite Durood Shareef in abundance on His last Prophet, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) thanked Allah Ta’ala and immediately began reciting Durood Shareef on the Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

From the above fact it is quite clear that Allah Ta’ala has given orders even to his Ambiya to recite Salawat on the last and final Prophet of Islam, and that Durood Shareef is not only panacea and a solution to the ills of this world but in the next too.

In another story, it is narrated that when Hadhrat Adam (alaihis salaam) saw Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) he wanted to be close to her, but Allah Ta’ala sent Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to stop him. Allah Ta’ala told him that if he wanted to take Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) as his wife, he should first pay Mahr (dowry). On his inquiry as to what the Mahr was, Allah Ta’ala told Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to inform him that the best way of paying the dowry is for him to recite Durood Shareef 3 times on His last Prophet, Hadhrat Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hadhrat Adam (alaihis salaam) did so, Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) was granted to him as his legal and legitimate wife.

The highest blessing that Islam has conferred on man is the concept of Tauheed or Unity of Allah in its purest form. This has been furnished to mankind through Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the last of the Prophets. It is a cardinal duty of every Muslim man and woman, young and old to entertain the highest respect, regard, love and esteem for the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his family. It should be clear that obedience to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is always to be charged with intense love and highest regard for him, for it is through love and esteem that truth can be comprehended and communion with the Creator can be vouch-safed. In fact, love is the motive force, reverence dissolves and implicit obedience to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which is the natural outcome.

It is therefore incumbent on those who love him, to pray to Allah Ta’ala and His Angels in wishing for him peace according to the Divine Command. This will reshape the life that is otherwise infested with turmoil. The reciter will get countless and matchless benefits in both the Worlds and can claim to be the lover of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

As Muslims we should recite Durood Shareef in the Arabic language. Islam seeks to create a unified outlook and it is in the Arabic language alone that welds all Muslims into one great brotherhood. Besides, Arabic is the language of Heaven, it is the language of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), it is the language of the Angels and it is the language of Hadhrat Abu-Bakr, Hadhrat Umar, Hadhrat Uthman and Hadhrat Ali (radi Allahu anhuma).

The daily recitation of Durood Shareef has a tremendous effect on the human head, heart, mind and person. It purifies thoughts and intensifies actions. It makes passages for perfect peace and personal satisfaction.

xcellence
of
Duroods

Allah and the angels sends durood on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) Oh you who believe you too send durood on the Prophet’
Al Quran 33:56

The message of Allah Ta’ala to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has come down to us in the form of the Holy Quran and the teachings of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) have reached us in the form of the Ahadith. Let us see what both the Holy Quran and Ahadith say about Durood Shareef (Salawat):
Innal llaha wa Malaa’ikatahu Yu salluna allan nabiyi. Ya Ayyuhal ladheena aamanu
sallu alaihi wasallimu tasleema.
Almighty Allah says: “Surely Allah and His Angels send blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). O you who believe! Send Blessings (Durood) and Salutations (Salaams) on the Prophet with worthy Salutation”. (Surah al-Ahzab: 56)
In this verse of the Holy Quran, Almighty Allah, His Malaa’ikah (Angles) and the Muslims have been mentioned as sending Durood upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). So, Durood Shareef is actually “a Du’a in praise of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).”

Hadhrat Anas (radi Allahu anhu) narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “He who reads a single Durood upon me, Almighty Allah blesses him ten times, ten of his sins are forgiven, and he is increased ten times in stages (internally). (Mishkaat)
Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Ma’sud (radi Allahu anhu) also narrates that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “On the Day of Qiyamah, the closest to me from among the people will be those who have read the most amount of Durood Shareef”. (Tirmidhi)

It is now evident that the recitation of Durood Shareef (Salawat) is in perfect obedience to the Divine Command and in complete conformity with the teachings of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam. There is no scope to choose anything else when we have with us the words of Allah Ta’ala and His Apostle, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)

The one who recites this Durood Sharif once, will receive the reward (sawab) of reciting
600,000 durood sharifs.
(Click image to enlarge)

WHAT IS DUROOD SHAREEF AND THE IMPORTANCE OF DUROOD SHAREEF
Divine blessings on Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is one of the highest and the most meritorious act in our Deen. This “Divine Blessings” is called Durood Shareef. When Almighty Allah sends Durood and Salaams upon Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), He is actually blessing him. When the Malaa’ikah and the Muslims send Durood and Salaams to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they are actually showing Almighty Allah their respect for the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Muslims hope that, through the blessings of the Durood and Salaams, Almighty Allah will forgive them of their sins and increase their status in this world and in the Hereafter. The Malaa’ikah hope that Almighty Allah will increase their status.

Durood is a sure means of Allah Ta’ala granting blessings, peace, prosperity and favours of great magnitude on one who recites Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). The reciter of Durood Shareef receives all the benefits in this world and utmost gain in the next world with addition to the love of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
The invocation of Blessings on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is styled in Arabic as “Salawat”, in Persian as “Durood”, and in Urdu as “Salawat-o-Salaam”.

The reciter of Durood Shareef will, after some time, come to realise by himself that it is the spontaneous outpouring of his heart before the Great Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) of Islam, whose love and attachment is needed to get all the present day problems solved and obtain mercy in the next world. The more Durood Shareef we recite, the greater the gain and benefit will be achieved in both the worlds.

Hadhrat Shaikh-e-Akbar Mo’inuddin ibn Arabi (radi Allahu anhu) has stated that, “Those who claim to love and revere the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) should increase their recital of the Durood Shareef in patience and perseverance until, through the mercy of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), they have the opportunity of witnessing his blessed countenance”.

The special and exclusive aspect of this prayer is that Durood Shareef is immediately accepted by Allah Ta’ala. No one can doubt its acceptance, as Durood Shareef is being recited by Allah Ta’ala too. Not only this, but He has revealed this secret in the Holy Quran by saying: Wara fa’na laka dhikrak – “Have I not exalted thy name.” Muslims are indeed very fortunate . Allah Ta’ala chose for them Islam as a religion, declared to be comprehensive and final for mankind. The person chose to deliver this message in this specific form and extra-ordinary style of love and hope was the most beloved of Allah Ta’ala and became the Light of Divinity, to be shed upon the entire universe. This Light devastated all the domains of darkness and depression. By reciting Durood Shareef (Salawat) we invite Light and drive away all darkness from our inner soul. Our mind becomes soft and love saturated. If there is softness in everything, it tends beauty to it. People become ugly owing to lack of this essential beauty of the inner part of the mind. This ugliness cannot be glossed over by any amount of cosmetics. It is the Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which works wonders.

In the same manner, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) taught us Durood Shareef to attain salvation, perfect peace and maximum gain in this world as well as the next. The soul is the soil where the faith of Allah is to be implanted firmly and faithfully which requires continuous recitation of Durood Shareef to thrive and flourish. We have been told by Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that Durood Shareef is itself Light and when Light enters the soul every aspiration is achieved and every goal is won. Nothing remains thereafter to worry about.

The one who recites this Durood Sharif once, will have his sins forgiven equivalent to 80 years
(Click image to enlarge)

Human spirit today is depressed everywhere and mankind has come to the edge of destruction, decay and devastation. Everyone is engulfed in untold miseries and tragedies of a very great magnitude. Troubles and tortures, pain, poverty, hunger, ill-health, frustrations and accidents have broken the back of the human society. All this can evaporate with the recitation of Durood Shareef on the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who has clearly proclaimed that Durood Shareef is the panacea of all ills and that if any one comes across a calamity he should recite Durood Shareef in the maximum number.
Allah Ta’ala has promised that if anyone recites Durood only once, He showers ten blessings on the reciter immediately. It is narrated that once Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) walked a very long distance in the desert during summer at noon. He lost his consciousness due to thirst and hunger. After a while, when he regained his consciousness, Allah Ta’ala sent Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to go and inquire from Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) if he was thirsty or not. Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) replied that he was thirsty. Allah Ta’ala told him that the thirst on the Day of Judgement will be a million times more than what Hadhrat Moosa (alaihis salaam) experienced. Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) was told that if he wished to get rid of that thirst on the hottest Day of Judgement, he would have to do one thing. When Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) enquired as to what should be done, Allah Ta’ala told him that he should recite Durood Shareef in abundance on His last Prophet, Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hadhrat Musa (alaihis salaam) thanked Allah Ta’ala and immediately began reciting Durood Shareef on the Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
From the above fact it is quite clear that Allah Ta’ala has given orders even to his Ambiya to recite Salawat on the last and final Prophet of Islam, and that Durood Shareef is not only panacea and a solution to the ills of this world but in the next too.
In another story, it is narrated that when Hadhrat Adam (alaihis salaam) saw Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) he wanted to be close to her, but Allah Ta’ala sent Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to stop him. Allah Ta’ala told him that if he wanted to take Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) as his wife, he should first pay Mahr (dowry). On his inquiry as to what the Mahr was, Allah Ta’ala told Hadhrat Jibrael (alaihis salaam) to inform him that the best way of paying the dowry is for him to recite Durood Shareef 3 times on His last Prophet, Hadhrat Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Hadhrat Adam (alaihis salaam) did so, Bibi Hawa (radi Allahu anha) was granted to him as his legal and legitimate wife.
The highest blessing that Islam has conferred on man is the concept of Tauheed or Unity of Allah in its purest form. This has been furnished to mankind through Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the last of the Prophets. It is a cardinal duty of every Muslim man and woman, young and old to entertain the highest respect, regard, love and esteem for the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and his family. It should be clear that obedience to Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is always to be charged with intense love and highest regard for him, for it is through love and esteem that truth can be comprehended and communion with the Creator can be vouch-safed. In fact, love is the motive force, reverence dissolves and implicit obedience to the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which is the natural outcome. It is therefore incumbent on those who love him, to pray to Allah Ta’ala and His Angels in wishing for him peace according to the Divine Command. This will reshape the life that is otherwise infested with turmoil. The reciter will get countless and matchless benefits in both the Worlds and can claim to be the lover of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
As Muslims we should recite Durood Shareef in the Arabic language. Islam seeks to create a unified outlook and it is in the Arabic language alone that welds all Muslims into one great brotherhood. Besides, Arabic is the language of Heaven, it is the language of Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), it is the language of the Angels and it is the language of Hadhrat Abu-Bakr, Hadhrat Umar, Hadhrat Uthman and Hadhrat Ali (radi Allahu anhuma). The daily recitation of Durood Shareef has a tremendous effect on the human head, heart, mind and person. It purifies thoughts and intensifies actions. It makes passages for perfect peace and personal satisfaction.

Jannah and jahannam the paradise and hell in islam

Jannah and jahannam the paradise and hell in islam

Introduction

Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam who passed away in 632, related:

“Gabriel came to me and said, ‘O Muhammad, live as you wish, for you shall eventually die. Love whom you desire, for you shall eventually depart. Do what you please, for you shall pay. Know that the night-prayer[1] is the honor of a believer, and his pride is being independant on others.’” (Silsilah al-Saheehah)

If there is only one thing certain about life, it is that it ends. This truism instinctively raises a question which preoccupies most people at least once in their life: What lies beyond death?

At the physiological level, the journey that the deceased takes is plain for all to witness. If left alone to natural causes,[2] the heart will stop beating, the lungs will stop breathing, and the body’s cells will be starved of blood and oxygen. The termination of blood flow to the outer extremities will soon turn them pale. With the oxygen cut off, cells will respire anaerobically for a time, producing the lactic acid which causes rigor mortis – the stiffening of the corpse’s muscles. Then, as the cells begin to decompose, the stiffness wanes, the tongue protrudes, the temperature drops, the skin discolors, the flesh rots, and the parasites have their feast – until all that is left is dried-out tooth and bone.

As for the journey of the soul after death, then this is not something that can be witnessed, nor can it be gauged through scientific enquiry. Even in a living body, the conscious, or soul, of a person cannot be subjected to empirical experimentation. It is simply beyond human control. In this regard, the concept of a Hereafter – a life beyond death, resurrection, and a Day of Reckoning; not to mention the existence of a Divine, Omnipotent Creator, His angels, destiny, and so on – comes under the subject of belief in the unseen. The only way in which man can come to know anything of the unseen world is through divine revelation.

“And with God are the keys of the unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.” (Quran 6:59)

While what has come down to us of the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel – the scriptures revealed to early prophets – all speak of a Hereafter, it is only through God’s Final Revelation to humanity, the Holy Quran, as revealed to His Final Prophet, Muhammad, that we learn most about the afterlife. And as the Quran is, and will forever remain, preserved and uncorrupted by human hands, the insight it gives us into the world of the unseen is, for the believer, as factual, real and true as anything that can be learnt through any scientific endeavor (and with a zero margin of error!).

“…We have neglected nothing in the Book; then unto their Lord they shall all be gathered.” (Quran 6:38)

Coupled with the question of what happens after we die, is the question: Why are we here? For if there is indeed no greater purpose to life (that is, greater than simply living life itself), the question of what happens after death becomes academic, if not pointless. It is only if one first accepts that our intelligent design, our creation, necessitates an intelligence and designer behind it, a Creator who will judge us for what we do, that life on earth carries any significant meaning.

“Then did you think that We created you in vain and that to Us you would not be returned? Therefore exalted be God, the Sovereign, the Truth; no deity is there save Him, Lord of the Supreme Throne.” (Quran 23:115-116)

If aught else, a discerning person would be forced to conclude that life on earth is full of injustice, cruelty and oppression; that the law of the jungle, survival of the fittest, is what is paramount; that if one cannot find happiness in this life, whether due to an absence of material comforts, physical love, or other joyous experiences, then life is simply not worth living. In fact, it is precisely because a person despairs of this worldly life while having little, no, or imperfect faith in an afterlife, that they may commit suicide. After all, what else do the unhappy, unloved and unwanted; the dejected, (desperately) depressed and despairing have to lose?![3]

“And who despairs of the Mercy of his Lord except those who are astray?” (Quran 15:56)

So can we accept that our death is limited to mere physiological termination, or that life is merely a product of blind, selfish evolution? Surely, there is more to death, and so to life, than this.

A Grave World

We will now take a brief look at the journey of the soul after death. This is truly an amazing story, all the more so because it is true and one which we all must take. The sheer depth of knowledge we have concerning this journey, its precision and detail, is a manifest sign that Muhammad was truly God’s Last Messenger to humanity. The revelation he received and then communicated to us from His Lord is as unambiguous in its description of the afterlife as it comprehensive. Our glimpse into this knowledge will begin with a brief exploration of the journey of the believing soul from the moment of death to its final resting place in Paradise.

When a believer is about to depart this world, angels with white faces come down from the heavens and say:

“O peaceful soul, come out to forgiveness from God and His pleasure.” (Hakim and others)

The believer will look forward to meeting his Creator, as the Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, explained:

“…when the time of the death of a believer approaches, he receives the good news of God’s pleasure with him and His blessings upon him, and so at that time nothing is dearer to him than what lies ahead of him. He therefore loves meeting God, and God loves meeting him.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

The soul peacefully passes out of the body like a drop of water which emerges from a water-skin, and the angels take hold of it:

The angels gently extract it, saying:

“…Do not fear and do not grieve, but receive good tidings of the Paradise which you were promised. We were your allies in this worldly life and [are so] in the Hereafter, and you will have therein whatever your souls desire, and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish], as a hospitality from the Forgiving and Merciful.” (Quran 41:30-32)

Once extracted from the body, the angels wrap the soul in a shroud smelling of musk and ascend up to the heavens. As the Gates of Heaven open for the soul, the angels greet it:

“A good soul has come from the earth, may God bless you and the body you used to dwell in.”

…introducing it with the best names it was called with in this life. God commands his “book” to be recorded, and the soul is returned back to earth.

The soul then remains in a place of limbo in its grave, called the Barzakh, awaiting the Day of Judgment. Two fearsome, dread-inspiring angels called Munkar and Nakeer visit the soul to ask it about its religion, God, and prophet. The believing soul sits upright in its grave as God grants it the strength to answer the angels with full faith and certainty.[1]

Munkar and Nakeer: “What is your religion?”

Believing soul: “Islam.”

Munkar and Nakeer: “Who is your Lord?”

Believing soul: “Allah.”

Munkar and Nakeer: “Who is your Prophet?” (or “What do you say about this man?”)

Believing soul: “Muhammad.”

Munkar and Nakeer: “How did you come to know these things?”

Believing soul: “I read the Book of Allah (i.e. the Quran) and I believed.”

Then, when the soul passes the test, a voice from the heavens will call out:

“My slave has spoken the truth, supply him with furnishings from Paradise, clothe him from Paradise, and open a gate for him to Paradise.”

The believer’s grave is made roomy and spacious and filled with light. He is shown what would have been his abode in Hell – had he been a wicked sinner – before a portal is opened for him every morning and evening showing him his actual home in Paradise. Excited and full of joyful anticipation, the believer will keep asking: ‘When will the Hour (of Resurrection) come?! When will the Hour come?!’ until he is told to calm down.[2]

The Day of Judgment

“That Day, a man shall flee from his brother; from his mother and his father; from his wife and his children. For on that Day, every man will have enough to make him indifferent to others.” (Quran 80:34-37)

The Hour of Resurrection will be a terrifying, overwhelming event. Yet, despite its trauma, the believer will be ecstatic, just as Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, related from his Lord:

God says, “By My Glory and Majesty, I will not give My slave two securities and two terrors. If he feels secure from Me in the world[1], I will instill fear in him on the Day when I gather My slaves together; and if he fears Me in the world, I will make him feel safe on the Day when I gather My slaves together.”[2]

“Unquestionably, for the allies of God there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve: those who believed and used to fear God (in this life); for them are good tidings in the worldly life and in the Hereafter. No change is there in the words of God. Indeed in that is the great success.” (Quran 10:62-64)

When all humans ever created are gathered to stand naked and uncircumcised on a great plain under the ferocious scorching heat of the Sun, an elite group of pious men and women will be shaded under the Throne of God. The Prophet Muhammad foretold just who these fortunate souls will be, on that Day when no other shade will avail:[3]

· a just ruler who did not abuse his power, but established divinely revealed justice among people

· a young man who grew up worshipping his Lord and controlled his desires in order to remain chaste

· those who hearts were attached to the Mosques, longing to return every time they left them

· those who loved one another for God’s sake

· those who were tempted by seductively beautiful women, but their fear of God stopped them from sinning

· the one who spent in charity sincerely for God’s sake, keeping their charity secret

· the one who wept out of God’s fear in solitude

Specific acts of worship will also keep people safe on that day, namely:

· efforts in this world to relieve the woes of the distressed, to help the needy, and to overlook the mistakes of others will relieve people’s own distress on Judgment Day[4]

· leniency shown to the indebted[5]

· the just who are fair to their families and matters entrusted to them[6]

· controlling anger[7]

· whoever calls to prayer[8]

· growing old while in a state of Islam[9]

· performing ritual ablution (wudu’) regularly and properly[10]

· those who fight alongside Jesus son of Mary against the Anti-Christ and his army[11]

· martyrdom

God will bring the believer close to Him, shelter him, cover him, and ask him about his sins. After acknowledging his sins he will believe he is doomed, but God will say:

“I concealed it for you in the world, and I forgive it for you this Day.”

He will be rebuked for his shortcomings,[12] but will then be handed his record of good deeds in his right hand.[13]

“Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will be judged with an easy account and return to his people in happiness.” (Quran 84:7-8)

Happy to look at his record, he will announce his joy:

“So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, ‘Here, read my record! Indeed, I was certain that I would be meeting my account.’ So he will be in a pleasant life – in an elevated Garden, its [fruit] to be picked hanging near. [He will be told], ‘Eat and drink in satisfaction for what you put forth in the days past.’” (Quran 69:19-24)

The record of good deeds will then be weighed, literally, to determine whether it outweighs the person’s record of bad deeds, and so that reward or punishment be meted out accordingly.

“And We place the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [any deed even] the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth. And sufficient are We to take account.” (Quran 21:47)

“So whoever worked even an atom’s weight of good will see (the good fruits of his labor).” (Quran 99:7)

“The heaviest thing that will be placed in a person’s Balance on the Day of Resurrection [after the testimony of Faith] is good manners, and God hates the obscene, immoral person.” (Al-Tirmidhi)

The believers will quench their thirst from a special reservoir dedicated to the Prophet Muhammad. Whoever drinks from it shall never experience thirst again. Its beauty, immenseness, and sweet, fine taste have been described in detail by the Prophet.

The believers in Islam – both the sinful amongst them and the pious – as well as the hypocrites will be left in the great plain after the unbelievers are driven to Hell. A long bridge traversing the Hellfire and engulfed in darkness will separate them from Paradise.[14] The faithful will take strength and comfort in their swift crossing over the roaring fires of Hell and in the ‘light’ that God will place in front of them, guiding them to their eternal home:

“On the Day you see the believing men and believing women, their light proceeding before them and on their right, [it will be said], ‘Your good tidings today are of gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein you will abide eternally.’ Indeed in that is the great success.” (Quran 57:12)

Finally, after crossing the bridge, the faithful will be purified before they are entered into Paradise. All scores between believers will be settled so that no one man nurses a grudge against another.[15]

Paradise

The believers will be ushered on towards the grand eight gates of Paradise. There, they will receive a joyous angelic reception and be congratulated on account of their safe arrival and salvation from Hell.

“But those who feared their Lord will be driven to Paradise in groups until, when they reach it while its gates have been opened and its keepers say, ‘Peace be upon you; you have become pure; so enter it to abide eternally therein.” (Quran 39:73)

(It will be said to the pious): “O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction! Come back to your Lord, Well-pleased and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter you then among My honored slaves. Enter you My Paradise!” (Quran 89:27-30)

The best of the Muslims will enter Paradise first. The most righteous of them will ascend to the highest levels.[1]

“But whoever comes to God as a believer (in His Oneness, etc.) and has done righteous good deeds; for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter).” (Quran 20:75)

“And the foremost (in faith) will be foremost (in the Hereafter); those are the ones brought near to God in the Gardens of Pleasure; they will enter in one rank with bright faces.” (Quran 56:10-2)

The Quranic description of Paradise gives us a vision of just what a fantastic place it is. An eternal home that will fulfill all our wholesome desires, seduce all our senses, grant us everything we could possibly want and much more besides. God describes His Paradise as having earth made of is fine musk powder,[2] soil of saffron,[3] bricks of gold and silver, and pebbles of pearls and rubies. Beneath the gardens of Paradise are flowing rivers of sparkling water, sweet milk, clear honey, and non-intoxicating wine. The tents on their banks are domes of hollow pearls.[4] The whole space is filled with sparkling light, sweet-smelling plants and fragrances that can be savored from afar.[5] There are lofty palaces, huge mansions, grapevines, date palms, pomegranate trees,[6] lotus and acacia trees whose trunks of made of gold.[7] Ripe, abundant fruit of all kinds: berries, citrus, drupes, grapes, melons, pomes; all kinds of fruit, tropical and exotic; anything the faithful could possibly desire!

“…And therein is whatever each soul desires and delights the eyes…” (Quran 43:71)

Each believer will have a most beautiful, pious and pure spouse, wearing exquisite clothing; And there will be so much more in a new world of eternal, radiant joy.

“And no soul knows what has been hidden for them of comfort for eyes [i.e. satisfaction] as reward for what they used to do.” (Quran 32:17)

As well as physical delights, Paradise will also give its residents a state of emotional and psychological bliss, as the Prophet said:

“Whoever enters Paradise is blessed with a life of joy; he will never feel miserable, his clothes will never wear out, and his youth shall never fade away. The people will hear a divine call: ‘I grant you that you will be healthy and never fall sick, you will live and never die, you will be young and never age, you will be joyful and never feel miserable.’” (Saheeh Muslim)

Ultimately, the thing that will most delight the eyes will be the Countenance of God Himself. For the true believer, to see this blessed vision of God is to have won the ultimate prize.

“[Some] faces, that Day, will be radiant, looking at their Lord.” (Quran 75:22-23)

This is the Paradise, the eternal home and final destination of the righteous believer. May God, Most High, make us worthy of it.

The Unbeliever in the Grave

As death approaches the wicked disbeliever, he is made to feel something of the heat of the Hellfire. This taste of what is to come causes him to plead for a second chance on earth to do the good he knew he should have done. Alas! His pleading will be in vain.

“Until, when death comes to one of them, he says: ‘O my Lord. Send me back to life (on earth) in order that I may do good deeds in the things that I neglected.’ By no means! It is only an utterance that he says. And before them is a barrier (preventing them from returning: the life of the grave) until the Day (of Resurrection) they are ressurected.” (Quran 23:99-100)

Divine wrath and punishment is conveyed to the wicked soul by hideously ugly, dark angels who sit far away from it:

“Receive glad tidings of boiling water, wound discharge, and multiple, similar torments.” (Ibn Majah, Ibn Katheer)

The disbelieving soul will not look forward to meeting its Lord God, as the Prophet explained:

“When the time of the death of a disbeliever approaches, he receives the evil news of God’s torment and His Requital, whereupon nothing is more hateful to him than what is before him. Therefore, he hates the meeting with God, and God too, hates the meeting with him.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

The Prophet also said:

“Whoever loves to meet God, God loves to meet him, and whoever hates to meet God, God hates to meet him.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

The Angel of Death sits at the head of the disbeliever in his grave and says: “Wicked soul, come out to the displeasure of Allah” as he snatches the soul out of the body.

“And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the overwhelming pangs of death while the angels extend their hands, saying, ‘Save yourselves! Today you will be awarded the punishment of extreme humiliation for what you used to say against God other than the truth, and that you were, toward His verses, being arrogant.” (Quran 6:93)

“And if you could not see when the angels take the souls of those who disbelieved… striking their faces and their backs and saying, ‘Taste the punishment of the Blazing Fire.’” (Quran 8:50)

The evil soul leaves the body with great difficulty, drawn out by the angels as a thronged skewer is dragged through wet wool.[1] The Angel of Death then seizes the soul and puts it in a sack woven from hair which gives off a putrid stench, as foul and offensive as the most foul-smelling rotting corpse found on earth. The angels then take the soul up past another company of angels who inquire: “Who is this wicked soul?” to which they reply: “So and so, the son of so and so?” – using the very worst of names that he was ever called during his time on earth. Then, when he is brought to the lowest heaven, a request is made that its gate be opened for him, but the request is denied. Whilst the Prophet was describing these events, when he reached this point, he recited:

“The gates of heaven will not be opened for them and they will not enter paradise until a camel can pass through the eye of a needle.” (Quran 7:40)

God will say: “Record his book in Sijjeen in the lowest earth.”

…and his soul is cast down. At this juncture, the Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, recited:

“He who assigns partners to Allah is as if he had fallen down from heaven and been snatched up by the birds, or made to fall by the wind in a place far distant.” (Quran 22:31)

The wicked soul is then restored to its body and the two fearsome, dread-inspiring angels, Munkar and Nakeer, come to it for its interrogation. After making him sit up, they ask:

Munkar and Nakeer: “Who is your Lord?”

Disbelieving soul: “Alas, alas, I do not know.”

Munkar and Nakeer: “What is your religion?”

Disbelieving soul: “Alas, alas, I do not know.”

Munkar and Nakeer: “What do you say about this man (Muhammad) sent to you?”

Disbelieving soul: “Alas, alas I do not know.”

Having failed his test, the disbeliever’s head will be struck with an iron hammer with a force so violent that it would crumble a mountain. The cry will be heard from heaven: “He has lied, so spread out carpets of Hell for him, and open for him a portal into Hell.”[2] The floor of his grave is thus set alight with some of Hell’s fierce fire, and his grave is made narrow and constricted to the extent that his ribs become intertwined as his body is crushed.[3] Then, an incredibly ugly being, wearing ugly garments and giving off a foul and offensive odor comes to the disbelieving soul and says: “Be grieved with what displeases you, for this is your day which you have been promised.” The disbeliever will ask: “Who are you, with your face so ugly and bringing evil?” The ugly one will reply: “l am your wicked deeds!” The disbeliever is then made to taste bitter remorse as he is shown what would have been his abode in Paradise – had he lived a righteous life – before a portal is opened for him every morning and evening showing him his actual home in Hell.[4] Allah mentions in His Book how the wicked people of Pharaoh are, at this very moment, suffering from such an exposure to Hell from within their graves:

“The Fire: they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon, and on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): ‘(Now) cause Pharaoh’s people to enter the severest torment!’” (Quran 40:46)

Overcome with fear and loathing, anxiety and despair, the disbeliever in his grave will keep asking: “My Lord, do not bring the last hour. Do not bring the last hour.”

The Companion, Zaid b. Thabit, narrated how, when the Prophet Muhammad and his Companions were once passing some graves of polytheists, the Prophet’s horse bolted and almost unseated him. The Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, then said:

“These people are being tortured in their graves, and were it not that you would stop burying your dead, I would ask God to let you hear the punishment in the grave which I (and this horse) can hear.” (Saheeh Muslim)

The Unbeliever on Judgment Day

A great terror will befall the resurrected on the mighty Day of Resurrection:

“…He only delays them until a Day when eyes will stare (in horror).” (Quran 14:42)

The unbeliever is resurrected from his ‘grave’ as described by God:

“The Day they will emerge from the graves rapidly as if they were, toward an erected idol, hastening. Their eyes humbled, humiliation will cover them. That is the Day which they had been promised.” (Quran 70:43)

The heart will be trembling, confused about what evil retribution lies in store for it:

“And (other) faces, that Day, will have upon them dust. Blackness will cover them. Those are the unbelievers, the wicked ones.” (Quran 80:40-42)

“And never think that God is unaware of what the wrongdoers do. He only delays them (i.e., their account) until a Day when eyes will stare (in horror). Racing ahead, their heads raised up, their glance does not come back to them, and their hearts are void.” (Quran 14:42)

The disbelievers will be gathered as they were born – naked and uncircumcised – upon a great plain, driven on his faces, blind, deaf, and mute:

“We will gather them on the Day of Resurrection (fallen) on their faces – blind, dumb, and deaf. Their refuge is Hell; every time it subsides We increase them in blazing fire.” (Quran 17:97)

“And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressing life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.” (Quran 20:124)

Three times they will “meet” God. The first time they will attempt to defend themselves in futile argument against God Almighty, saying things such as: “The prophets did not come to us!” Even though Allah revealed in His Book:

“…And never would We punish until We sent a messenger.” (Quran 17:15)

“…Lest you say: ‘There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner….’” (Quran 5:19)

The second time, they will present their excuses while acknowledging their guilt. Even the devils will try to excuse themselves from their crimes of leading men astray:

“His (man’s) personal demon will say: ‘Our Lord! I did not push him to transgress. Rather, he was himself in error, far astray.’” (Quran 50:27)

But God, Most High and Just, will not be fooled. He will say:

“Dispute not in front of me. I have already advanced before you the threat. The sentence that comes from Me cannot be changed. And I am not unjust (in the least) to the slaves.” (Quran 50:28-29)

The third time the wicked soul will meet its Maker to receive its Book of Deeds[1], a record omitting nothing.

“And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say: ‘Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?’ And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does not do injustice to anyone.” (Quran 18:49)

Upon receiving their records, the wicked ones will be rebuked in front of the whole of mankind.

“And they will be presented before your Lord in rows, (and He will say), ‘You have certainly come to Us, just as We created you the first time.’ But you claimed that We would never have an appointment!” (Quran 18:48)

The Prophet Muhammad said: “These are the ones who did not believe in God!”[2] And it is these whom God will question regarding the blessings they took for granted. Each one will be asked: ‘Did you think We would meet?’ And as each one will answer: ‘No!’ God will tell him: ‘I will forget about you as you forgot Me!’[3] Then, as the disbeliever will attempt to lie his way out, God will seal his mouth, and his body parts instead will testify against him.

“That Day, We will seal over their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet will testify about what they used to earn.” (Quran 36:65)

Besides his own sins, the disbeliever will also bear the sins of those he misled.

“And when it is said to them: ‘What has your Lord sent down?’ They say: ‘Legends of the former peoples,’ that they may bear their own burdens (i.e., sins) in full on the Day of Resurrection and some of the burdens of those whom they misguide without knowledge. Unquestionably, evil is that which they bear.” (Quran 16:24-25)

The psychological pain of deprivation, loneliness and abandonment will all to the physical torture.

“…and God will not speak to them or look at them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them; and they will have a painful punishment.” (Quran 3:77)

While the Prophet Muhammad will intercede on behalf of all believers, no intercessor will the disbeliever find; he who worshipped false deities besides the One, True God.[4]

“…And the wrongdoers will not have any protector or helper.” (Quran 42:8)

Their saints and spiritual advisors will dissociate themselves, and the disbeliever would wish he could come back to this life and do the same to those who now disown them:

“(And they should consider that) when those who have been followed disassociate themselves from those who followed (them), and they [all] see the punishment, and cut off from them are the ties [of relationship]. Those who followed will say, ‘If only we had another turn [at worldly life] so we could disassociate ourselves from them as they have disassociated themselves from us.’ Thus will God show them their deeds as regrets upon them. And they are never to emerge from the Fire.” (Quran 2:167)

The sorrow of the sin-ridden soul will be so intense that he will actually pray: ‘O God, have mercy on me and put me in the Fire.’[5] He will be asked: ‘Do you wish you had a whole earth-full of gold so you could pay it to set yourself free?’ To which he will answer: ‘Yes.’ Whereupon he will be told: ‘You were asked for something much easier than that – worship God alone.’[6]

“And they were not commanded except that they should worship Allah (alone), being sincere to the upright religion (of Islam)….” (Quran 98:5)

“But the disbelievers – their deeds are like a mirage in a lowland which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing, but he finds God before Him, Who will pay him in full his due; and God is swift in account.” (Quran 24:39)

“And We shall turn to what deeds they have done, and We shall make them as dust dispersed.” (Quran 25:23)

The disbelieving soul will then be handed in his left hand and from behind his back, his written record which was kept by angels who noted his every deed in his earthly life.

“But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say: ‘Oh, I wish I had not been given my record, and had not known what is my account.’” (Quran 69:25-26)

“But as for he who is given his record behind his back, he will cry out for his destruction.” (Quran 84:10-11)

Finally, he will be made to enter Hell:

“And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups until, when they reach it, its gates are opened and its keepers will say: ‘Did there not come to you messengers from yourselves, reciting to you the verses of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?’ They will say: ‘Yes, but the word (i.e., decree) of punishment has come into effect upon the disbelievers.’” (Quran 39:71)

The first to enter Hell will be the pagans, followed by those Jews and Christians who corrupted the true religion of their prophets.[7] Some will be driven to Hell, others will fall in it, snatched by hooks.[8] At that point, the disbeliever will wish that he had could have been turned into dust, rather than reap the bitter fruits of his evil works.

“Indeed, We have warned you of a near punishment on the Day when a man will observe what his hands have put forth and the disbeliever will say: ‘Oh, I wish that I were dust!’” (Quran 78:40)

The Unbeliever and Hell

Hell will receive the faithless with its fury and roar:

“…and We have prepared for those who deny the Hour, a Blaze. When it [Hellfire] sees them from a distant place, they will hear its fury and roaring.” (Quran 25:11-12)

When they near it, they will anticipate their shackles and their destiny as fuel:

“Indeed, We have prepared for the disbelievers chains and shackles and a blaze.” (Quran 76:4)

“Indeed, with Us are shackles and burning fire.” (Quran 73:12)

Angels will rush at God’s command to seize and shackle him:

“Seize him and shackle him.” (Quran 69:30)

“…and We will put shackles on the necks of those who disbelieved.” (Quran 34:33)

Bound in chains…

“…a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits.” (Quran 69:32)

…he will be dragged along:

“When iron collars will be rounded over their necks, and the chains, they shall be dragged along.” (Quran 40:71)

While they are being tied down, chained, and dragged to be thrown into Hell, they will hear its rage:

“And for those who disbelieved in their Lord is the punishment of Hell, and wretched is the destination. When they are thrown into it, they hear from it a [dreadful] inhaling while it boils up. It almost bursts with rage….” (Quran 67:6-8)

Since they will be driven from the great plain of gathering, naked and hungry, they will beg the inhabitants of Paradise for water:

“And the companions of the Fire will call to the companions of Paradise: ‘Pour upon us some water, or from whatever God has provided you.’ They will say: ‘Indeed God has forbidden them both to the disbelievers.’” (Quran 7:50)

At the same time the faithful in Paradise will be received with honor, made comfortable, and served with delicious banquets, the disbeliever will dine in Hell:

“Then indeed, you, the stray, the deniers, will be eating from trees of zaqqoom and filling your bellies with it.” (Quran 56:51-53)

Zaqqoom: a tree whose roots are in the bottom of Hell and which branches into its other levels; its fruit resembles the heads of the devils:

“Is that (Paradise) better as hospitality or the tree of zaqqoom? Indeed, We have made it a torment for the wrongdoers. Indeed, it is a tree issuing from the bottom of the Hellfire, its emerging fruits as if it was heads of the devils. And indeed, they will eat from it and fill with it their bellies.” (Quran 37:62-66)

The wicked will have other food to eat as well, some that chokes,[1] and some like dry, thorny bushes.[2]

“Nor any food except from the (foul) discharge of wounds; none will eat it except the sinners.” (Quran 69:36-37)

And to wash down their melancholy meals, an extremely cold mix of their own pus, blood, sweat and wound discharge[3] as well as boiling, scolding water which dissolves their intestines:

“…and are given to drink scalding water that will sever their intestines.” (Quran 47:15)

The clothing of the denizens of Hell will be made of fire and pitch:

“…but those who disbelieved will have cut out for them garments of fire.” (Quran 22:19)

“Their garments of liquid pitch and their faces covered by the Fire.” (Quran 14:50)

Their sandals,[4] bed, and canopies will likewise be made of fire;[5] a punishment encapsulating the entire body, from heedless head to transgressing toe:

“Then pour over his head from the torment of scalding water.” (Quran 44:48)

“On the Day the punishment will cover them from above them and from below their feet and it is said: ‘Taste what you used to do.’” (Quran 29:55)

Their punishment in Hell will vary according to their disbelief and other sins.

“By no means! He will surely be thrown into the Crusher. And what can make you know what is the Crusher? It is the fire of God, [eternally] fueled, which mounts directed at the hearts. Indeed, it [Hellfire] will be closed down upon them. In extended columns.” (Quran 104:5-9)

Every time the skin will burn through, it will be replenished with new skin:

“Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses – We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through, We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, God is ever Exalted in Might and Wise.” (Quran 4:56)

Worst of all, the punishment will keep increasing:

“So taste [the penalty], and never will We increase you except in torment.” (Quran 78:30)

The psychological effect of this punishing chastisement will be tremendous. A chastisement so severe that its sufferers will cry out for it to be multiplied on those who led them astray:

“They will say: ‘Our Lord, whoever brought this upon us – increase for him double punishment in the Fire.’” (Quran 38:61)

The daring will make their first attempt to break out, but:

“And for them are maces of iron. Every time they want to get out of it from anguish, they will be returned to it, and [it will be said]: ‘Taste the punishment of the Burning Fire!’” (Quran 22:21-22)

After failing several times, they will seek assistance from Iblees, the Great Satan himself.

“And Satan will say when the matter has been concluded: ‘Indeed, God had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you, and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with God] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment.’” (Quran 14:22)

Giving up on Satan, they will turn to the angels guarding Hell to get their torment reduced, even if just for a day:

“And those in the Fire will say to the keepers of Hell: ‘Supplicate your Lord to lighten for us [even] one day from the punishment.?” (Quran 40:49)

Awaiting the response for as long as God wills, the guards will come back and ask:

“‘Did there not come to you your messengers with clear proofs?’ They will say, ‘Yes.’ They (Hell’s keepers) will reply: ‘Then supplicate yourselves, but the supplication of the disbelievers is nothing but (an exercise in) futility.’” (Quran 40:50)

Losing hope in the reduction of punishment, they will seek death. This time they will turn to the Hell’s Chief Keeper, the angel, Malik, pleading to him for forty years:

“And they will call: ‘O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!…’” (Quran 43:77)

His curt rebuttal after a thousand years will be:

“…Indeed, you will remain.” (Quran 43:77)

Eventually, they will return to He Whom they refused to turn to in this world, asking for one last chance:

“They will say, ‘Our Lord, our wretchedness overcame us, and we were a people astray. Our Lord, remove us from it, and if we were to return [to evil], we would indeed be wrongdoers.’” (Quran 23:106-107)

God’s respond will be thus:

“Remain despised therein and do not speak to Me.” (Quran 23:108)

The pain from this response will be worse than their fiery torment. For the disbeliever will know his stay in Hell will be for an eternity, his omission from Paradise absolute and final:

“Indeed, those who disbelieve and commit wrong – never will God forgive them, nor will He guide them to a path except the path of Hell; they will abide therein forever. And that, for God, is easy.” (Quran 4:168-169)

The greatest deprivation and sorrow for an unbeliever will be spiritual: he will be veiled from God and will be deprived of seeing Him:

“No! Indeed, from their Lord, that Day, they will be partitioned.” (Quran 83:15)

Just like they refused to “see” Him in this life, they will be separated from God in the next life. The faithful will jeer at them.

“So Today, those who believed are laughing at the disbelievers, on adorned couches, observing. Have the disbelievers [not] been rewarded [this Day] for what they used to do?” (Quran 83:34-36)

Their total despair and grief will culminate when death is brought in the form of a ram and slaughtered in front of them, so they know no refuge will ever be found in a final dissolution.

“And warn them, (O Muhammad), of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and yet they are heedless, and they do not believe!” (Quran 19:39)

Conclusion

Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, who passed away in 632, related:

“This world is a prison for the believer, but for the disbeliever it is a Paradise. While for the disbeliever, the Hereafter will be a prison, but for the believer, it will be his Paradise.”

Once, in the early period of Islam, a poor Christian happened upon one of the great scholars of Islam, who was at the time mounted upon a fine horse and clad in fine garments. The Christian recited to the well-to-do Muslim the hadeeth quoted above, before remarking: “Yet I stand before you a non-Muslim, poor and destitute in this world, while you are a Muslim, rich and prosperous.” The scholar of Islam replied: “Indeed so. But if you knew the reality of what might await you (of eternal punishment) in the Hereafter, you would consider yourself now to be in Paradise by comparison. And if you knew the reality of what might await me (of eternal bliss) in the Hereafter, you would consider me now to be in prison by comparison.”

Thus, it is from the great mercy and justice of God that he created Heaven and Hell. Knowledge of the Hellfire serves to dissuade man from wrong-doing while a glimpse into the treasures of Paradise incites him towards good deeds and righteousness. Those who deny their Lord, work evil and are unrepentant will enter Hell: a place of real pain and suffering. While the reward for righteousness is the place of unimaginable physical beauty and perfection that is His Paradise.

Often, people testify to the goodness of their own souls by claiming that any good they do is purely and solely out of a genuine love of God or to live by a universal moral and virtuous code, and for that, they do not need any sticks or carrots. But when God speaks to man in the Quran, He does so knowing the fickleness of his soul. The delights of Paradise are real, physical, tangible delights. Man can begin to appreciate just how desirable the perfect, abundant and unending food, clothing and homes of Paradise can be precisely because he is aware of how satisfying and sweet those things can be in this present reality.

“Beautified for men is the love of things they covet: women, children, hoards of gold and silver, branded beautiful horses, cattle and well-tilled land. Such is the pleasure of the present life; but with Allah is the excellent return (to Paradise).” (Quran 3:14)

Likewise, man can begin to appreciate just how tortuous and terrifying Hellfire and its furnishings could be precisely because he is aware of how awful a burning by fire can be in this world. So, the journey of the soul after death, as described to us in vivid detail by God and His Prophet, Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, should and must serve as nothing but an incentive to what all of humanity surely and truly recognizes as its noble purpose: the worship and service of its Creator in selfless love, awe and gratitude. After all,

“…they were not commanded except that they should worship Allah (alone), being sincere to the upright religion (of Islam).” (Quran 98:5)

But, as for those many multitudes amongst mankind who, throughout the ages, neglect their moral duty to their Lord God and their fellow man, let then not forget that:

“Every soul will taste death, and you will only be given your [full] compensation on the Day of Resurrection. So whoever is drawn away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, it is indeed he who has succeeded. And what is the life of this world except the enjoyment of delusion.” (Quran 3:185)

The hajj annual pilgrimage to mecca

 The hajj annual pilgrimage to mecca

Hajj is an important cornerstone of Islam. It is a great worship and an important responsibility which must be discharged by those who are able, irrespective of age or gender. If Hajj becomes wajib but is not performed the person dies the death of a Jew or a Christian and will be raised on the day of judgement as a Jew or a Christian. One who performs Hajj is blessed with the forgiveness of all his sins and he becomes as pure as he was when he was born. Thus it is the duty of all to discharge this important responsibility and not to be negligent about it. For the Hajj to be accepted it should be performed as per the rules ordained by the shariat (Islamic law). Hence this booklet has been published according to the edicts of four maraaje who are followed by majority of the people: Agha Khoei, Agha Khomeini, Agha Khamenei and Agha Seestani.

Persons on whom Hajj is wajib:

Hajj becomes wajib on anyone who fulfills the following requirements:
Is baligh.
Is sane.
Is free.
Has enough time to go to Makkah and perform all the rites of Hajj.
Has enough money for travel and other Hajj related expenses. Example: Food, accommodation, qurbani, etc.
Should have enough money to give to his dependents so that they can meet their requirements until his return from Hajj.
Security i.e. there should be no danger to the pilgrim’s life, wealth or honor throughout the journey.
Should be healthy enough to perform all the rites of Hajj. He should not have such an illness or weakness that he cannot bear the difficulties of the journey.
On return from Hajj he should be able to earn for himself and his dependants.

Rule:

Hajj will also become wajib if someone else gives you money to meet your Hajj expenses and once you’ve performed such a Hajj, Hajj will never be obligatory upon you ever again, even if at a later date you are financially able to perform Hajj yourself. Example: A father pays for his baligha daughters’ Hajj expenses.

Important Note:
If the parents have not performed Hajj, Hajj still remains obligatory on the able son/daughter because it is not wajib to pay for the expenses of the Hajj of ones’ parents or wife. Thus if a person has enough money to cover the expenses for his own Hajj only, then he must go for Hajj himself and he cannot give that money to someone else.
Having unmarried sons or daughters does not remove the obligation of Hajj. Hence if a person has unmarried daughters, Hajj will remain wajib on him. Hajj is wajib on an unmarried person too.
If a lady has the ability to perform Hajj, Hajj will become wajib on her even if it has not become wajib on her husband. There is no condition of a mehram accompanying a woman for her Hajj. Thus a woman can go for Hajj even without the company of a mehram on the condition that her honor will remain secure.
If a person has taken a loan and the loan repayment date has not yet arrived but he has now got enough money to meet Hajj expenses he will first perform Hajj and later repay the loan. Simply being in debt does not waive Hajj. (Agha Seestani’s edict in this regard is lengthy, please refer to relevant books/learned persons.)
If a person has some property or assets that are above his social standing, it is wajib upon him to sell them and meet his Hajj expenses.
If a lady has more jewelry than her social standing allows her to keep or she has become so old that she does not need her jewelry she must sell her jewelry and use the money to go for Hajj. Similarly if the lady has enough meher money to meet her Hajj expenses and it is possible for her to obtain her meher then it is wajib for her to demand her meher and go for Hajj.
If a person has only so much money that if he pays the zakat and/or khums which are wajib on him he will not have enough money remaining for Hajj, then it is wajib upon him to pay the zakat and/or khums and Hajj will no longer be wajib on him.
If someone is so old or weak that he cannot bear the difficulties of Hajj, then Hajj is not wajib on him. But if Hajj was previously wajib on him and in spite of having the ability he had not performed it, Hajj has to be performed in whichever way possible even if he is now old or weak. And if he is completely unable to perform Hajj then during his lifetime he should send someone else to perform Hajj on his behalf and if this is not possible he should make a will in this regard.
If Hajj becomes wajib on a person and he dies, Hajj expenses must be set aside from the wealth he leaves behind. Without removing this sum, distributing his wealth is haraam and a sin.
When Hajj becomes wajib, it is wajib to discharge the duty immediately i.e. in the same year. It is not allowed to postpone it. Hajj on behalf of the deceased should be performed during the first year after his death. (There is a possibility of delay according to Agha Seestani although this delay is against caution.)
If Hajj has become wajib then it should be performed before Umra or ziyaraat. Normally the ziyaraat or Umra expenses of a number of persons are equal to the Hajj expenses of a single person. If, for example, in a family two to three persons are doing ziyaraat each with their own money, then there are less chances of Hajj becoming wajib on any one of them. But if a single person is bearing the ziyaraat expenses of two to three persons then there are more chances of Hajj becoming wajib on the expense bearer, hence it is better to consult an aalim in this regard.
If someone meets the above requirements then Hajj will become wajib on him. This wajib Hajj is called “Hajj-e-Islam”. It is of three types: Tamatto, Qiran and Ifrad. Of these Hajj-e-Ifrad and Hajj-e-Qiran are obligatory on those who reside within Makkah or within ninety kilometers (52 miles) of Makkah. Hence these are outside are discussion. For those residing outside these boundaries the third type of Hajj becomes wajib which is called Hajj-e-Tamatto which is the topic of our discussion. Before we delve into the details please note three things of utmost importance: Taqlid, Khums & Qiraat.

Taqlid:

Taqlid is required to follow the laws of Islam. Taqlid is to act according to the fatawa (edicts) of the most knowledgeable scholar of your time (mujtahide alam), and in all religious rulings one must strictly adhere to the marjaa. Without Taqlid all actions, especially Hajj, can become void. It is important to do Taqlid of a living scholar. Doing Taqlid of a dead scholar, however much learned and pious he was, is not permitted. Similarly one cannot continue to do Taqlid if a dead scholar according to ones own wishes. One must do Taqlid of a living scholar (who fulfils all the conditions by religion) then depending on his opinion one may continue to do Taqlid of a dead scholar.

According to Agha Seestani if the dead scholar was more knowledgeable than the living scholar then it is wajib to continue doing Taqlid of the dead scholar and this is not limited to following only those fatwas which the follower followed while that mujtahid was alive, even for new fatwas one must resort to the dead scholar.

Agha Khamenei gives his followers a choice: if they want they can follow the dead scholar or they may choose to follow the new scholar.

Important Points:
Taqlid is wajib upon women too and it is not necessary for her to do Taqlid of the scholar her husband/other relatives do Taqlid of. Rather she should independently investigate and do Taqlid.
If in any issue the marjaa does not give an opinion but the uses the word ehtiyate wajib (obligatory precaution), then only in this issue you may resort to the opinion of the next most knowledgeable living scholar. But if you do not know the opinion the next living scholar then you will be required to act upon the ehtiyate wajib of your marjaa.
Besides ehtiyate wajib you have to follow the fatwas of your own mujtahid whether you find them easy of difficult.
It is not permitted that some part of Hajj is performed according to your own mujtahid and some part not according to the fatwas of your mujtahid unless the part which does not conform to the fatwas of your mujtahid are closer to precaution (they are more difficult).
You cannot rely on a book about which you do not know that it has been written according to the fatwas of your mujtahid even though the book may have been authored by an extremely reliable person, a scholar or an institution, because it is possible that this reliable person/scholar/ institution may have written the fatwas of some other mujtahid.
If a person has not done Taqlid then he must do Taqlid immediately to prevent his Hajj from becoming void.

Khums:

If zakat or khums has become wajib on someone he must pay zakat/khums or else Hajj will become haraam. And if ehram is purchased from the wealth on which khums/zakat has become wajib but not been paid, Hajj will be null and void. Those who pay khums regularly would normally not have these problems for Hajj, but those who have not paid khums till now must consult the representative of his marjaa so that his Hajj will be correct. Ladies may especially note this point.

Note:

For those persons who are not doing Hajj with their own wealth but someone else is paying for their Hajj expenses:

If you are in Taqlid of Agha Khoei or Agha Seestani there is no responsibility on you even if you know the expense bearer has not paid khums on this wealth on the condition that from the time you receive the expenses till the Hajj rites are complete an entire year has not gone by.

Those doing Taqlid of Agha Khomeini and Khamenei: if you do not know whether the expense bearer has paid khums or not on your Hajj expenses then there is no responsibility on you. However, if you are sure khums was due on the money being given to you as Hajj expenses but khums has not been paid on it then you must consult a representative of Agha Khamenei so that your Hajj can be correct.

Qiraa’at:

A wajib part of Hajj is salaat of Tawaf; hence your salaat must be correct. If you are not sure that your salaat is correct please refer to a learned person or a reliable person. Make sure your Arabic pronunciation is correct. Similarly you must ensure that your wudhu and ghusl are correct. Please practice correct Arabic pronunciation of talbiya. (Normally people worry that in Hajj they will have to recite long duas in Arabic, please note that Hajj is a series of rites to be performed and there are just two things whose recital is wajib: i) talbiya and ii) salaat of Tawaf. Besides these two nothing else is wajib to be recited in Hajj.)

Method of Hajj:

Besides residents of Makkah and its neighboring areas people from all over the world perform a Hajj called Hajj-e-Tamatto, which is composed of two parts and the performance of both these parts constitute the complete Hajj. The method of Hajj by proxy, mustahab Hajj or precautionary Hajj is the same as Hajj-e-Tamatto.

In the first part of Hajj an Umra called Umra-e-Tamatto must be performed. The second part is called Hajj-e-Tamatto. Because the entire Hajj is also called Hajj-e-Tamatto and the second part is also called Hajj-e-Tamatto to avoid confusion, henceforth, the entire Hajj will be referred to as Hajj-e-Islam and the second part will be referred to as Hajj-e-Tamatto.

The first part of Hajj ie Umra-e-Tamatto is different from the Umra performed during the rest of the year which is called Umra-e-Mufrada. However during the Hajj journey Umra-e-Mufrada can also be performed (sometimes Hajj journey begins with Umra-e-Mufrada with the actual Hajj coming later on).

Umra-e-Mufrada/Tamatto at a glance:

It consists of the following waajibaat:
Wearing ehram at miqaat.
Tawaf i.e. to go around the kaa’ba
To recite 2 rakaat salaat-e-Tawaf behind Maqame Ibrahim.
Saee i.e. walking between Safa and Marwah
Halaqa (shaving the head)/ taqseer (to cut of little hair)

For Umra e Mufrada only:
To perform Tawaf-e-Nisa
2 rakaat salaat of Tawaf-e-Nisa

Method of Umra-e-Tamatto in short:

First Umra-e-Tamatto should be performed which includes 5 wajibaat:
To wear the ehram
Tawaf of kaa’ba
2 rakaat salaat of Tawaf
Saee between Safa and Marwah
Taqseer (Umra-e-Tamatto finishes with taqseer but if you are performing Umra-e-Mufrada you must perform Tawaf-e-nisa and salaat of Tawaf-e-Nisa.)

After completing Umra-e-Tamatto, wait for the second part of Hajj ie Hajj-e-Tamatto which starts on 8th or 9th of zilhijja. It consists of 13 waajibaat:
To wear the ehram.
To stay in Arafaat on the 9th of zilhijja between noon (zawwal) and sunset.
To remain in Muzdalifa on the 10th of zilhijja between dawn (fajr) and sunrise.
To throw pebbles on the biggest jamaraah (shaytaan/pillar) on the 10th of zilhijja.
To perform Qurbaani (sacrifice) after stoning.
To perform Halaqa/Taqseer (women should do only taqseer).
To spend half the night of 11th and 12th zilhijja in Mina.
To stone all the three jamaraat on the 11th and 12th if zilhijja.
Tawaf of Hajj.
Salaat of Tawaf.
Saee between Safa and Marwah for Hajj.
Tawaf-e-Nisa
Salaat of Tawaf-e-Nisa.

Details of Umra-e-Tamatto:

As we have mentioned previously Umra-e-Tamatto consists of 5 waajibaat:

I. Ehram:

While wearing ehram bear in mind 4 things:
Miqaat
Wearing two pieces of cloth.
Niyyat
Reciting the talbiya.

Miqaat:

Shariat has clearly defined certain places for wearing ehram, these are called miqaat. One may not bypass these designated areas and proceed to Makkah without ehram. But if the Hajj or Umra performer so desires he can wear ehram by nadhr before the miqaat. And then he does not have to go to the miqaat to wear ehram. So which is a better miqaat or better method to wear the ehram? This depends on the hajis program. Ordinarily people proceed to Makkah in one of these three ways:
First go to Madinah then proceed to Makkah for Hajj: When these people leave Madinah they will come across Masjid-e-Shajarah or Abyar-e-Ali at a distance of 6 miles from Madinah. This is a miqaat from where the Hajj ehram should be worn.
First go to Makkah for Hajj then proceed to Madinah: When such persons reach Jeddah they should proceed to Johfah which is a miqaat and wear the ehram of Hajj from there. However they can, before reaching Jeddah (in their hometown or in the plane) wear ehram by nadhr. (Agha Seestani allows such nadhr to be done at Jeddah also.)
First go to Makkah then go to Madinah then return to Makkah for Hajj: Such people when they enter Makkah for the first time should wear ehram of Umra-e-Mufrada for which they have a choice (wearing ehram at miqaat or by nadhr), then they go to Madinah and when they return to Makkah they should wear the ehram of Hajj at Masjid-e-Shajarah. These people are initially required to wear ehram of Umra-e-Mufrada, because once you have entered Makkah wearing the ehram of Umra e Tamatto you cannot leave Makkah till Hajj is complete, while these people would like to go to Madinah before Hajj.

Nadhr:

For people who go directly to Makkah, they can either wear the ehram at Johfah or they can wear ehram by doing nadhr. If they wear the ehram by nadhr they do not have to go to Johfah. Nadhr does not mean to recite Fatiha on some sweet. Rather it means that a person makes a verbal (say in words) promise to Allah (swt), it will be something like this: For the sake of Allah (swt) I make it incumbent upon myself to wear the ehram of Umra-e-Tamatto (or Umra-e-Mufrada) from ________. (Fill in the blank with the name of the place from where you will wear the ehram.)

The rules and conditions for this nadhr are the same as other nadhr. An important condition is that a married woman needs her husband’s permission to do the nadhr. (For details refer to the Tauzeeh of your Marjaa.)

According to Agha Khoei, Agha Khamenei & Agha Khomeini you may do the nadhr and wear the ehram either in your own city or in the airplane 40-45 minutes before the flight is due to land at Jeddah. You cannot do nadhr and wear ehram at Jeddah. Agha Seestani allows wearing ehram by nadhr at Jeddah too.

Note:

If you are wearing ehram by nadhr you will be traveling by plane which is a closed vehicle. This does not create any problems for women but if men have a choice they cannot travel in a closed vehicle in the state of ehram. Thus Imam Khomeini and Agha Khamenei allow their male followers to wear ehram by nadhr only if, from the time of wearing ehram till they reach Makkah the whole journey occurs during the night. The male followers of Agha Seestani must also take care of this issue and as far as possible must travel from Jeddah to Makkah at night only, even if they have to wait at Jeddah airport for the day to end. According to Agha Khoei one can wear ehram by nadhr during day or night even though after wearing ehram one will have to travel in a closed vehicle. However, later a Kaffarah (penalty) will have to be paid for traveling in a closed vehicle.

Please note that according to Imam Khomeini and Agha Khamenei if one purposely travels in a closed vehicle (during the day) after wearing ehram by nadhr then both nadhr and ehram are correct but the person has performed a sin. For Agha Seestani in addition to it being a sin the validity of nadhr will be in doubt. There is a possibility of doing ruju i.e. resorting to the next most knowledgeable aalim (Fal Alam) in this regard.

Some people are under the wrong impression that the permission for nadhr is only for times when there is no other alternative, and because it was dangerous and difficult to reach the miqaats in the olden times. They think that nowadays since it is neither dangerous nor difficult to travel to a miqaat, wearing ehram by nadhr is no longer valid. This is a misunderstanding. The permissibility has nothing to do with being helpless. On the contrary one can wear the ehram by nadhr even when one has a choice. Besides the followers of Agha Seestani one may not wear ehram by nadhr at Jeddah. But if one has no other choice then one can wear ehram by nadhr from Jeddah also. For example a person had decided to go to the miqaat from Jeddah for wearing the ehram but is unable to get any transport to the miqaat or the authorities are not allowing him to go to the miqaat, now it is permissible to wear ehram by nadhr from Jeddah airport also. But such persons must again do Niyyat of ehram when they reach the boundary of the Haram.

The other waajibaats of Ehram:

Besides the miqaat, there are three other waajibaats of ehram:
To wear two pieces of cloth:
To do the Niyyat.

3. To recite the Talbiya.

Those persons wearing ehram in their hometowns or in the plane must, in addition to the above three waajibaat, also do nadhr. The nadhr must precede these waajibaat.

Details:

1. To wear two pieces of cloth: It is wajib to wear two pieces of cloth for ehram, one of which covers the body from the waist to the knees and the other put across the shoulders in such a way that both the shoulders are covered. This is the minimum body covering required in ehram, therefore the cloth should not be smaller than the requirement. If it is bigger than the requirement it does not matter. This ehram is wajib for males only. Ladies may use their normal clothes for ehram; they need not wear these two pieces of cloth. However it is better that ladies too wear an ehram consisting of two pieces of cloth.

Please keep the following points in mind while choosing your ehram:
The cloth must not be sewn. (Ladies may wear sewn clothes.)
It should be Tahir i.e. not najis.
It should not be made of pure silk (This applies to ehram of ladies also.)
It should not be made of hide or hair of an animal whose meat is prohibited to eat.
It should not be so transparent that the body shows from below.

Note: If after wearing the ehram it becomes najis at any point of time it should be made paak or changed immediately. However the blood which is allowed in salaat is allowed even in ehram.

2. To do Niyyat: After wearing the two pieces of cloth do Niyyat as follows: I’m wearing the ehram of Umra-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.

3. To recite the Talbiya: After doing the Niyyat it is wajib to recite the talbiya as follows: Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk, Labbayka Laa Shareeka Laka Labbayk is the wajib portion of the talbiya the rest of it is mustahab, but it is better as far as possible that even the mustahab portion is recited. If there are any na-mehram around who may hear the talbiya, women should recite talbiya in a low voice. Talbiya should be recited in proper Arabic. If you cannot recite it yourself take the help of someone who will help you to recite it, if even this is not possible try your best to recite the talbiya.

Note:
It is wajib to recite the talbiya just once but it is mustahab to keep reciting the talbiya till you reach Makkah, especially, example: before sleeping after getting up, when you’re climbing or getting down. However people doing Umra-e-Tamatto should stop reciting the talbiya when they reach Hudood-e-Haram. (Boundary of the Haram)
For wearing ehram one need not be with wudhu or ghusl. However ghusl is recommended. (mustahab)
While wearing ehram it is not wajib to recite any salaat. However it is recommended (mustahab) to recite a six rakaat salaat or a two rakaat salaat and it is still better to wear the ehram after reciting adaa or qaza namaz.
It is not wajib that the pilgrim has the two pieces of cloth on his body all the time, you are allowed to take them off, to change them, or to purify them if they become najis.
Once you have worn the ehram, if at any point ghusl becomes wajib on you it makes no difference to your ehram. Simply perform your ghusl and wear a set of Tahir clothes.
It is haraam for men to wear sewn cloth, but sewn belt can is allowed in which some money or important documents are kept. Avoid leather belts coming form non-Muslim countries.
It is allowed to knot the ehram or use safety pins.
A lady in Haiz (menses) can also wear ehram.
For men the minimum requirement is two pieces of cloth. But if they wish they can wear more pieces of cloth or use a shawl or blanket to cover themselves. Men should avoid covering the head and ears, and women should avoid covering their faces.
It is not necessary to buy a new set of ehram with your own money. You may borrow a used ehram from someone even if he has used that ehram for Umra. You can use it for your Hajj with his permission.
It is not wajib to change into the two pieces of cloth at the place you’ll be wearing the ehram, but the two cloths can be worn in advance, but the Niyyat should be done and talbiya should be recited only at the place ehram is worn. Example: at the Miqaat. Therefore if you are wearing your ehram at Masjid-e-Shajarah you can wear the two pieces of cloth from Madinah itself but you will do Niyyat and recite the talbiya at Masjid-e-Shajarah only. Similarly if you are wearing the ehram in the plane you need not change into the two pieces of cloth on the flight itself but you can wear them before boarding the flight and when you reach the place where you will wear the ehram now you only need to do the Niyyat and recite the talbiya. The restrictions of ehram do not start by simply wearing the two pieces of cloth but they apply after the Niyyat and talbiya.

Restrictions of Ehram:

Certain things are prohibited in the state of ehram some of these are prohibited even in daily normal life but because of ehram there is a stronger emphasis on these. Of these 21 restrictions apply to men and women. Four apply only to men, and two apply only to women.

21 restrictions which apply to both men and women:
Hunting animals on land.
Carrying weapons
Having sexual relations.
Kissing women
Touching women with intention of pleasure.
Looking at a non-mehram woman with lust.
Masturbation
Marrying (performing owns nikkah or to recite nikkah for someone else)
Using perfume
Applying kajal in eyes.
Looking into a mirror
Applying oil
Removing hair from the body
Cutting nails
Blood-letting
Using something with the intention of beautification, even if it is a watch or a ring.
Killing worms or lice found on the body.
Lying, boasting, abusing, etc.
Jidal i.e. to take an oath using words like wallah, billah, etc.
Tooth extraction
To uproot the grass, etc from the Haram.

Four things which are prohibited for men in the state of ehram but allowed for women:
Covering of head
To travel in vehicle with a closed roof. (Agha Khamenei permits it during the night, Agha Seestani also permits it during the night provided its not raining.)
To wear something that covers the top part of the foot completely example: socks, shoes, etc
To wear sewn clothes.

The above mentioned four things are not only allowed for women but if there is a na-mehram onlooker then it will be wajib for her to cover her feet completely even in the state of ehram

Two things are prohibited for women only:
To cover the face with cloth, etc.
To wear gloves. Some Maraaje for example Agha Seestani prohibit all kinds of gloves while others for example Agha Khoei prohibits only a special kind of gloves.

Note:
All the above mentioned things are haraam in ehram. Performing some of these is a sin and attracts Kaffarah, while performing some others does not attract any penalty however one must do istighfar (repent) for the sin.
When Kaffarah becomes wajib it must be paid in Makkah, but because of the difficulty it entails it can be paid after returning to one’s hometown. Details of Kaffarah are beyond scope of this booklet. But certain important points are as follows:
In the state of ehram it is prohibited for men and women to look in the mirror, however if one does so forgetfully or suddenly finds himself in front of a mirror, it is not a problem. According to some Maraaje, intentionally looking into a mirror is prohibited only if the intention is beautification. Thus for other reasons example to check an injury on the face etc, looking into a mirror is permissible.
In the state of ehram the use of perfume/good smell is haraam in all forms (eating, smelling & applying). Perfumes include the use of perfumed soaps and toothpaste. In addition to this it is prohibited to close ones nostrils to any bad smell. However it is allowed to hurry up and leave the place.
In the state of ehram men must not cover their head and ears. Some Maraaje (example: Agha Seestani) prohibit covering the ear even partially. Hence avoid touching the mobile phone to your ears. Agha Khamenei gives permission for the same. The prohibition of covering of ears applies to men only, so women can use mobile phone as normal.
In the state of ehram women are not allowed to cover their faces. Agha Seestani does not allow even partial covering of the face. Hence on the basis of ehtiyate women may not use a mask to protect themselves from dust, etc. Agha Khamenei allows the face to be covered partially; hence women in the taqlid of Agha Khamenei can use a mask. The same difference will apply to the use of towels, handkerchiefs or tissues. Agha Seestani allows wiping of the nostrils.

I: Men are not allowed to travel in closed vehicles in the state of ehram, during the day. However during the night traveling in closed vehicles is: i) prohibited by Agha Khoei and some other Maraaje. ii) Allowed by Agha Seestani unless it is raining. iii) Is against caution according to Agha Khamenei. This rule of closed roof vehicle applies only to men and not to women and na-baligh boys.

II: If a man travels in a closed vehicle whether purposely or because he had no choice his Umra/Hajj remains valid but he has to pay Kaffarah.

III: The Kaffarah is a sheep or a goat whose meat should be distributed amongst deserving people who should be poor as well as Shia Ithna Asheri. The meat can also be given to institutions for example: religious schools or orphanages, but all the recipients of meat should be deserving (poor and Shia). If you distribute an equal amount in cash you have not discharged your responsibility of paying Kaffarah, but you can give the money to a reliable person about whom you trust to sacrifice the animal and distribute the meat to deserving people.

IV: There is no time limit within which Kaffarah has to be paid but the sooner the better.

V: After you have worn the ehram (be it of Umra-e-Mufrada or Umra-e-Tamatto or Hajj) if you have to travel in a closed vehicle more than once, you have to pay just one Kaffarah, till you take of this ehram. For example: People, who wear ehram during the flight to Jeddah, disembark at Jeddah and take a closed vehicle to Makkah. Now although they have traveled twice in a closed vehicle they have to pay only one Kaffarah. This rule does not apply to Kaffarah for other things. Everything has its own rules for Kaffarah. Example: It is haraam to wear sewn clothes in haraam and there is a Kaffarah for every article of sewn cloth worn in ehram.

VI: It is allowed to touch ones wife or mehram women without lustful intention. Example: It is allowed to hold their hand during Tawaf or to help them to cross the street, etc.

II. Tawaf

After wearing the ehram, rest of the waajibaat of Umra have to be performed in Makkah. When you enter Makkah it is up to you whether to complete the Umra first or rest a little first. It is better to arrange accommodation and rest a little before you perform the remaining six waajibaat of Umra. But those women who fear the start of their menses must perform the tawaf and its namaz immediately on arrival in Makkah. Those ladies who are already in menses when they enter Makkah must wait till they become clear of their menses and perform the ghusl. During the waiting period all the restrictions of ehram will apply to them and they must refrain from all the prohibitions of ehram.

The first wajib of Umra in Makkah is performing the tawaf. Enter Masjidul Haram through any door, go towards the Kaa’ba and perform the tawaf i.e. walk around the Kaa’ba seven times. Before starting the Tawaf take care of these five necessary things:
Niyyat: I perform the tawaf of Umra-e-Tamatto of Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
Make sure you have performed Wudhu/Ghusl before starting the tawaf.
Your body and clothes should be free from all najaasat.
During tawaf it is wajib for private parts of men to be covered. Women should cover their bodies as much as it is wajib to cover during salaat. Take care that hands are covered up to the palms.
Men should be circumcised.

Before starting tawaf make sure that the above five points have been taken care of and only then start the tawaf.

During tawaf the following seven points must be observed:
Perform seven complete rounds around the Kaa’ba, not less or more than seven.
All the seven rounds must be performed consecutively, i.e. there must no be any gap between any two successive rounds such that it is not called a tawaf.
Start every round at Hajar-e-Aswad in such a way that the Hajar-e-Aswad is included in the tawaf.
Every round must end at the Hajar-e-Aswad. As a precaution in the last round walk a few steps beyond Hajar-e-Aswad to make sure you have crossed it but do not count these extra steps as part of your tawaf.
During the entire tawaf the Kaa’ba should be on your left. If because of crowds, etc your direction changes such that the Kaa’ba is on your front back or right hand side then do not include that much portion in your tawaf. It is wajib for you to go to the place where your direction had changed and resume your tawaf from there and complete that round. However there is no restriction on looking left, right, front or back.
Include the Hijr-e-Ismail in your tawaf i.e. go around the Hijr-e-Ismail; do not walk through the gap between Hijr-e-Ismail and the wall of the Kaa’ba. When you perform tawaf in this way the Hijr-e-Ismail will be on your left.
It is not permitted to enter the Kaa’ba or walk on the shadharwaan (these are the sloping walls at the base of the Kaa’ba) during the tawaf.
Some Maraaje example Agha Khomeini require the tawaf to be performed within a distance of approximately 13 gaz (1 gaz is a little less than 1 meter) from the wall of the Kaa’ba (26 ½ hand spans which is the distance of Makam-e-Ibrahim from the wall of the Kaa’ba.) However Agha Khoei, Agha Seestani and Agha Khamenei do not consider this to be wajib and especially in crowds.

Note:
It is not wajib to recite anything during the tawaf. You make keep quiet or have a conversation with someone or read a Dua or recite salawaat.
At every round when you come to Hajar-e-Aswad it is not wajib to pause there or to raise your hand your hand and utter bismillahi wallahu akbar. But if you wish to recite please ensure that your left shoulder does not move away from the Kaa’ba or else your tawaf may become incorrect. Instead of turning your whole body towards the Kaa’ba such that your chest faces the Kaa’ba simply turn your face towards the Hajar-e-Aswad and utter bismillahi wallahu akbar.
Doubt in the number of rounds you have performed will invalidate the tawaf. Hence pay special attention to the numbering of the rounds. If you trust your companion to keep a proper count then you may rely on him.
If your tawaf is interrupted by Salaat Jamaat stop your tawaf and resume it from the same place after Jamaat gets over. However if you have completed less than four rounds complete this tawaf and perform another one.
If your wudhu breaks during the tawaf and if you have completed four rounds then perform wudhu and resume the tawaf from the place your wudhu had broken. But if you had performed three or less than three rounds then perform wudhu and start a completely new tawaf. If your wudhu breaks between the third and fourth rounds this requires some details, contact your aalim/books.
As far as possible avoid doing tawaf from the upper floors. In extreme situations learn the details from your aalim before performing this tawaf.

III. Salaat of Tawaf:

As soon as you finish the tawaf recite a two rakaat salaat bearing the following points in mind:
It is to be recited exactly like fajr salaat and it consists of two rakaats.
The Niyyat will be: I recite two rakaat salaat of tawaf of Umra-e-Tamatto of Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
It is wajib to recite this salaat exactly behind Makam-e-Ibrahim. If this is not possible then recite it a little to the left or right of Makam-e-Ibrahim. If this is not possible recite a little further away from Makam-e-Ibrahim but as recite it as close as possible to Makam-e-Ibrahim.
There is no azan or iqamat before this salaat.
Sajda on the tiled floor of Masjidul Haram is correct. Hence there is no need to keep sajdagah or turbat for the salaat.
All the conditions applicable to wajib salaat apply to this salaat also.

IV. Sa’ee:

After salaat of tawaf the sa’ee has to be performed i.e. walk between Safa and Marwah seven times bearing in mind the following points:
Niyyat: which will be I am performing the sa’ee of Umra-e-Tamatto of Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
The starting point of sa’ee will be Safa.
Perform seven rounds such that the first round will start at Safa and end at Marwah. The second round is from Marwah to Safa. The third round will again be from Safa to Marwah and so on. The seventh round will end at Marwah.
During rounds your chest should face toward the mountain to which you are walking. Thus if you are walking towards Safa your chest should face Safa. It is not correct to walk backwards. (Walking towards Safa with your back facing Safa.) However just looking to the left, right or behind is not a problem as long as your chest is facing the mountain toward which you are walking.

Note:
Sa’ee can be performed walking or using a transport. It can be performed running or walking slowly.
At the end of every round you may sit on Safa/Marwah to rest a little. Even in the middle of a round you can sit for a little while to rest.
It is not wajib to be in a state of wudhu nor is it required for your body or clothes to be paak. But it is better to take care of these factors. Thus if your wudhu is invalidated you can still perform the sa’ee.
Sa’ee is not allowed from the upper floors. Doing so may invalidate your entire Hajj. If someone has no choice (during rush hours wheelchairs are not allowed on the ground floor) you may do sa’ee on the top floor and in addition to this as a precaution appoint a representative who will do sa’ee on your behalf on the ground floor.
It is not necessary to walk fast between the green lights during sa’ee rather it is mustahab for men to do so. Women should walk at normal speed.

V. Taqseer:

After performing sa’ee the next wajib is taqseer. At the end of your sa’ee you will be at Marwah. Taqseer is to cut a little hair from the head or beard or cutting nails. The Niyyat will be: I am doing taqseer of Umra-e-Tamatto of Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah. You can perform the taqseer yourself. However if somebody else is doing it for you then ensure that, that person is not in the state of ehram. A person in ehram cannot do taqseer for others. Women should ensure that na-mehram do not see their hair while performing taqseer. After taqseer you have now come out of the state of ehram and all the restrictions of ehram are over except the following:
It is not allowed to shave the head until the hajj is completed. (However some Maraaje do allow it.)
Without necessity do not leave Makkah until it is time to wear ehram for hajj. You may not even to go to Jeddah, Arafah or Mina for ziyarat.
Until hajj is complete it is not permissible to perform any Umra-e-Mufrada.

What to do in Makkah?

On completion of Umra-e-Tamatto you have finished the first part of Hajj. The second part of Hajj will start on 8th Zilhijja. Between the first and second part of hajj you have to stay in Makkah. Try to spend as much time as possible in Masjidul Haram doing Ibadat and pay special attention to the following:
Perform as many mustahab tawafs as you can. This tawaf is performed in ordinary clothes i.e. go around the Kaa’ba seven times in ordinary clothes. There is no sa’ee or taqseer after this tawaf. These tawafs can be performed on behalf of relatives, friends, acquaintances, etc. Simply make the Niyyat that you are performing the tawaf for this particular person for example: I’m performing this tawaf for my father Qurbatan Ilallah. Tawaf is the best worship whilst you’re in Makkah.
These mustahab tawafs do not require wudhu. But being with wudhu gets thawaab hence it is better that only those people take advantage of this leniency whose wudhu keeps breaking frequently.
In mustahab tawafs it is allowed to perform a number of tawafs consecutively and then recite all the salaats together but this is makruh (will lessen the thawaab).
It is not necessary to recite the salaat of mustahab tawafs behind Makam-e-Ibrahim. You may recite it anywhere in the Masjid. And if for some reason you do not recite the salaat at all, the tawafs will remain correct.

2. Salaat: Try to recite all obligatory salaats in Masjidul Haram and as many Qaza salaats as possible because the thawaab of one salaat recited in Masjidul Haram is equivalent to 10 lakh salaat.

3. It is very good if you can recite a whole Quran.

4. Looking at the Kaa’ba also brings thawaab. Hence if you are too tired to perform tawaf or salaat or to recite Quran just sit on the floor and look at the Kaa’ba.

5. Visit the revered places in Makkah especially the birthplace of the Holy Prophet (saws), Bayt-e-Khadija (House of Khadija), the cave of Hira, the cave of Thaur and the cemetery of Jannatul Mu’alaa. In Jannatul Mu’alaa are the graves of Bibi Khadija (sa), Hazrat Abu Talib, Bibi Amina, Hazrat Abd-Manaf & the son of the Holy Prophet (saws) Janabe Qasim. When you go to visit this graveyard remember to take ziyarat book with you and recite their ziyarats.

Hajj-e-Tamatto at a glance:

It consists of the following waajibaats:
Wearing the ehram at Makkah
Wuqoof at Arafah (stay at Arafah)
Wuqoof (stay) at Muzdalifa or Mash’arul Haram
To stone the Jamratul Uqba (biggest shaytaan) at Mina
To do the Qurbaani
To perform taqseer or Halaq (shave the head)
To return to Makkah and perform the tawaf
To recite salaat of tawaf
To do sa’ee between Safa and Marwah
To do Tawaf-e-Nisa
To perform salaat of Tawaf-e-Nisa
To spend the night of 11th and 12th Zilhijja in Mina
On the 11th and 12th of zilhijja to stone all three jamaraat with seven pebbles each.

Hajj-e-Tamatto:

Now starts the second part of your wajib hajj which is called Hajj-e-Tamatto in which 13 things are wajib:
Wearing the ehram
To stay in Arafah on 9th of Zilhijja from zuhr to sunset.
To spend the night of eid in Mash’arul Haram (Muzdalifa).
To arrive in Mina on the day of eid and stone the biggest Jamaraah.
To sacrifice an animal on the day of eid in Mina.
To shave the head of perform taqseer.
To perform the tawaf of Hajj.
To perform the salaat of tawaf
Sa’ee
To perform Tawaf-e-Nisa
To perform salaat of Tawaf-e-Nisa
To spend the night of 11th and 12th zilhijja in Mina.
To stone all the three jamaraat on 11th and 12th of zilhijja

Once you have completed these waajibaat your hajj is over. Contact ulema or detailed books for details. A short explanation follows:
Wearing the ehram: The ehram for Hajj-e-Tamatto can be worn at any place in Makkah even in your hotel in Makkah. However some Maraaje require ehram to be worn in the old city of Makkah only. Wearing the ehram consists of:

Ø Wearing two pieces of cloth

Ø Niyyat: I’m wearing the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.

Ø Talbiya which is reciting the following in correct Arabic: It is wajib to recite the talbiya once. Repetition is mustahab and can be repeated till zawwal on 9th of zilhijja. Thereafter reciting talbiya is not allowed. Once you have worn the ehram 25 things (mentioned previously) become haraam. It is better to wear the ehram on 8th of zilhijja.
Stay in Arafah: Arafah is a valley about 14 miles from Makkah. Although it is wajib to stay in Arafah on the 9th of zilhijja from zuhr to sunset, a majority of the hujjaj wear ehram in Makkah on the 8th of zilhijja and arrive in Arafah on the 8th itself and spend the night in Arafah. There are two conditions for stay in Arafah:

a. Do Niyyat at zawwal: I’m staying in Arafah from zuhr to sunset for Hajj-e-Tamatto Qurbatan Ilallah.

b. Stay put in Arafah from zuhr to sunset.

Note: It is only wajib to stay in Arafah, nothing else is wajib. You can sit, sleep in your tent. You may stand or stroll within the boundaries of Arafah. You may keep quiet or talk but it is mustahab to spend the entire stay in Dua.
Stay at Mash’arul Haram: After staying at Arafah on the 9th of zilhijja till sunset you have to reach Mash’arul Haram (Muzdalifa). It is wajib to stay at Muzdalifa from Fajr to sunrise. But as a precaution one should spend the night here after reaching from Arafah. There are two conditions for stay in Muzdalifa:

a. Niyyat: As a precaution do two niyyats. One is done on reaching Muzdalifa (whatever time of the night you reach): I am staying the night at Muzdalifa for Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah. The second Niyyat is done at fajr: I am staying at Muzdalifa from fajr to sunrise for Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.

b. From fajr to sunrise stay at Muzdalifa.

Note:

I. It is haraam to leave Muzdalifa before sunrise. It is your choice how you want to spend the time at Muzdalifa. But the importance of this night is equal to that of Laylatul Qadr. Hence spend it as much as possible remembering Allah (swt) (especially recite Tasbih-e-Zahra) and in Dua.

II. It is mustahab to gather pebbles for hitting the Jamaraat from Muzdalifa, during the stay at Muzdalifa.

III. If it difficult for women, old people and the ill to stay at Muzdalifa they may leave before sunrise rather they may leave in the night itself.

Two Important Rules:

I. Stay in Muzdalifa is very important. Skipping this will invalidate the Hajj. If you are unable to reach Muzdalifa during the specified times then try to reach Muzdalifa on the 10th of Zilhijja between sunrise and zawwal (zuhr/noon) and do Niyyat which will save your hajj. This is called Wuqoof-e-Idhtarari. In these times traffic holdups can delay you from reaching Muzdalifa in the specified times. Understand the Wuqoof-e-Idhtarari well or else your hajj can become invalid.

II. It is mustahab to recite the Maghrabain salaat at the end of the day of 9th zilhijja at Muzdalifa. However this is not wajib and it is also correct to recite this Maghrabain at Arafah. Especially if there is a possibility of salaat becoming qaza, (For example because of unavailability of transport or traffic holdup you are still in Arafah at midnight.) it is better to recite Maghrabain at Arafah.

Leaving for Mina:

After staying at Muzdalifa till sunrise, leave for Mina. It will be the 10th of zilhijja and you have to perform three wajibaat on this day.
Stoning: On 10th zilhijja the first wajib to be performed in Mina is to stone the Jamratul Uqba (biggest Jamaraah) with seven pebbles. Take care of the following while stoning:

a. Niyyat: I am stoning the Jamratul Uqba with seven pebbles for Hajj-e-Tamatto Qurbatan Ilallah.

b. These pebbles should be picked up from the Haram area, and it is better to pick them up from Mash’arul Haram.

c. Every pebble should be new i.e. no one should have used the pebble for stoning previously.

d. The pebble should not be usurped: Do not use someone else’s pebble without permission.

e. You may stone the jamaraah on the 10th of zilhijja at any time between sunrise and sunset.

f. The pebbles should be thrown at the jamaraah. It is not enough to just deposit them at the jamaraah.

g. The pebble should reach the jamaraah. If you throw but the pebble does not reach the jamaraah it will not be counted.

h. Seven pebbles must hit the jamaraah not less than that.

i. Pebbles should be thrown one by one not many at a time.

j. The pebbles should reach the jamaraah without hitting anything else on the way.

Note:

I. If it is impossible or extremely difficult for anyone to throw the pebbles himself, he many appoint a representative to stone the jamaraah on his behalf.

II. On the 10th of zilhijja only the Jamratul Uqba (biggest jamaraah) has to be stoned and not the other two jamaraah.

III. Women should perform the stoning themselves on the 10th zilhijja (and also on the 11th and 12h of zilhijja.) It is wrong to appoint a representative to stone the jamaraah on her behalf. If because of crowds it is impossible to perform the stoning during the day she may perform it at night (the night preceding 10th zilhijja) but she should do it herself. However according to Agha Seestani women must perform the stoning on the second and third day (11th and 12th zilhijja) during daytime only and not at nighttime. If she is helpless in the matter, she may appoint a representative to perform the stoning on her behalf during the day.

IV. As an obligatory precaution do not stone the jamaraah from the upper levels. However Agha Khamenei and Imam Khomeini allow the stoning to be performed from the upper levels.

Important Note:

Due to stampede at the jamaraah in recent years and the resulting deaths, the entire layout of the jamaraah area is being changed. The final religious decrees will depend on the final layout of the area. Right now the most important change is the replacement of pillars with big walls. Thus you are required to stone the central area of the wall only.
Qurbani/Sacrifice: On the 10th of zilhijja after stoning the big jamaraah the next wajib is to do the sacrifice. Although maraaje have mentioned the conditions of the sacrificial animals, the responsibility of the sacrifice is taken over by the group you have joined because the slaughterhouse is away from Mina. Hence individuals do not need to know most of these rulings except those mentioned below:

1. The sacrifice should be done only after stoning the big jamaraah.

2. Both you as well as the person performing the sacrifice on your behalf have to do the Niyyat. Each individual must do a separate sacrifice. It is not valid if many people together offer one sacrifice:

Note:

I. It is not necessary to perform the sacrifice with your own hands. Someone else can also perform it on your behalf in which case both you and he must do the Niyyat.

II. According to Imam Khomeini the person performing the sacrifice on your behalf must be Shia Ithna Asheri. If the butcher is not a Shia Ithna Asheri, this sacrifice is not enough and has to be redone. Other maraaje have not put this condition. It is enough for the butcher to be a Muslim.

III. In the opinion of Agha Khoei as an obligatory precaution (ehtiyate-e-wajib) the sacrificial meat should be divided into three parts. One is for your self, one is for other momineen and the third part is for the poor. Other maraaje do not put this condition. According to Agha Seestani, one part should be given to the poor (faqeer) but if no faqeer is available there even this part can be left behind. It is better that before returning to your hometown, ask a poor shia to give you permission in this regard.

IV. Sacrifice should be offered in Mina, but nowadays there are no slaughterhouses in Mina, the government has shifted all the slaughterhouses to outside Mina. According to Agha Khomeini and Agha Khamenei it is wajib to do the sacrifices in these slaughterhouses. But according to Agha Khoei and Agha Seestani if sacrifice cannot be done in Mina then it can be done anywhere within the boundaries of the haram. Hence sacrifice can be done in these new slaughterhouses or in the slaughterhouses of Makkah. (Makkah being within the boundaries of the haram.) It is the responsibility of the group organizers to perform the sacrifice in the correct place and be aware of all the rulings in this regard.

V. The sacrifice done through bank coupons is not correct since many aspects about it remain doubtful for us.
Taqseer/Shaving the head: The third wajib of the haji on 10th zilhijja after the Qurbani is to shave the head or perform the taqseer (clipping a few hair of the head/beard or clipping the nails.)

For ladies: It is not allowed for ladies to shave their heads. They can either do taqseer themselves or get it done by someone else.

For men: It is closer to precaution for the man performing hajj for the first time to shave his head although Agha Khoei and Agha Khamenei give a choice.

Whether you’re performing the taqseer or shaving the head, Niyyat remains wajib.

Niyyat for shaving the head: I am performing the Halaq to become free of the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto Qurbatan Ilallah

Niyyat for Taqseer: I am performing taqseer to become free of the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto Qurbatan Ilallah.

Note:

Ø It is doubtful that the slaughterhouse is in Mina. The taqseer/halaq should be performed in Mina. Hence after performing the sacrifice, make sure you are in Mina before performing the halaq/taqseer. Do not perform just outside the slaughterhouse. The majority of the haji do not go to the slaughterhouse but this point should be borne in mind by persons going to the slaughterhouse to perform the sacrifices for the group.

Ø Shaving the head is not excused because of the fear of contracting AIDS or Hepatitis. Simply take your own blade and insist that the barber uses it for you.

Ø If the news that the sacrifice has been performed on your behalf reaches you during the night then there is a difference of opinion amongst the maraaje whether the halaq/taqseer can be performed during the night or should be postponed to the next day. According to Agha Khoei it is ehtiyate-e-wajib (obligatory precaution) not to perform the halaq/taqseer in the night but to spend the night in the state of ehram and perform the halaq/taqseer the following day. Agha Seestani & Imam Khomeini allow the halaq/taqseer to be performed in the night also. According to Agha Khamenei, in case there is a delay in the sacrifice the halaq/taqseer should be performed on the 10th of zilhijja before the day ends, even if the sacrifice has not been performed. After performing the halaq/taqseer the three waajibaat of 10th zilhijja has now be performed and the haji can now rest and all the restrictions of ehram are lifted except three:

1. Use of perfumes

2. Sexual relations with wife

3. Hunting

These three are still haraam.

Acts of Makka-e-Mukarramah:

The following five acts are to be performed only after completing the three waajibaat of Mina on the 10th of zilhijja. These are:
Tawaf of Kaa’ba
Salaat of tawaf
Sa’ee
Tawaf-un-Nisa
Salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa

If you are going during the day to perform these 5 acts you must return to Mina before sunset because it is wajib to spend the night including sunset of 11th and 12th zilhijja in Mina. Thus if you have enough time on the 10th of zilhijja to perform these waajibaat and return to Mina by sunset you may go to Makkah to perform them, but if you do not have enough time or you have enough time but do not wish to go on the 10th you may go on the 11th on the condition that you return to Mina by sunset. If you wish you can even perform these waajibaat on the 12th or any time till the end of zilhijja but until you perform these acts:
You cannot return to your country
Perfume and women remain haraam. (Remember that perfume includes shampoo, soap and toothpaste too.)
You cannot perform umra for yourself or anyone else
Some maraaje do not even allow you to leave Makkah. (example: you may not go to Jeddah)

Note:

In the above highlighted portion please note that some maraaje allow you to return by midnight. Details follow:
Tawaf of Kaa’ba: Bearing the above mentioned ruling in mind you may go to Makkah whenever you want to perform the tawaf. The Niyyat is I’m performing the tawaf of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah. All the conditions and methods remain the same as mentioned for Umra-e-Tamatto.
Salaat of Tawaf: After performing the tawaf recite two rakaat salaat behind Makam-e- Ibrahim. The conditions and method remain the same as for Umra-e-Tamatto, but the Niyyat will be I’m performing salaat of tawaf of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
Sa’ee: Perform the sa’ee between Safa and Marwah after salaat of tawaf. The conditions and method are exactly the same as those for Umra-e-Tamatto; however the Niyyat will be I’m performing the sa’ee of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
Tawaf-un-Nisa: After performing sa’ee return to the Kaa’ba and perform another tawaf, the methods and conditions are exactly the same as that of the tawaf of Umra-e-Tamatto. This second tawaf is called Tawaf-un-Nisa; the Niyyat will be I’m performing Tawaf-un-Nisa of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
Salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa: After performing Tawaf-un-Nisa recite a two rakaat salaat behind Makam-e-Ibrahim the Niyyat of which will be I am performing the salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa of Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah. The method and conditions are the same as those mentioned for salaat of tawaf.

After performing the salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa women become halal for men and vice versa (which had become haraam because of the restrictions imposed by the ehram.).

Note:

Even after doing the Halaqa/taqseer 3 things remain haraam. Of these perfume becomes halal after performing the tawaf, salaat of tawaf and sa’ee. The wife becomes halal after performing Tawaf-un-Nisa and its salaat, while hunting is always haraam within the limits of the haram.

Important Ruling:

It is permitted for some people to perform these 5 acts of Makkah between wearing the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto and departing for Arafah. However even their ehram will come off only after performing the Halaqa/taqseer in Mina. These are those persons for whom it is very difficult to perform the 5 acts of Makkah after Mina because of the crowds and their return to their hometowns is at an early date. Example: old people or those women who fear the onset of their menses. However the followers of Agha Khoei should observe precaution in this regard. Please ask your aalim for further details. Please note that women get certain concessions in hajj simply because they are women. It does not matter whether she’s young or old, healthy or ill, weak or strong. For example: They do not have to wait in Muzdalifa till sunrise. But this facility of being able to perform the 5 wajib acts of Makkah in advance is given only to those women who have some problem, example: she’s old, weak, ill or fears the onset of her menses. Other women cannot perform these acts in advance.
Spending the night in Mina: It is wajib to spend the half the night of 11th and 12th zilhijja in Mina. You can spend either the first ½ of the night i.e. from sunset to midnight or the second ½ i.e. from midnight to morning in Mina, but according to Agha Khomeini it is wajib to spend the first half of the night in Mina i.e. from sunset to midnight. The Niyyat for this stay will be I am staying the night of 11th/12th zilhijja in Mina for Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
Rami al Jamaraat: It is wajib to stone all the three jamaraat with seven pebbles each on both the 11th and 12th day of zilhijja in Mina. Taking care of the following points:
Niyyat; I am stoning the ____________ (Ula/Wusta/Uqba) jamaraah on the 11th/12th zilhijja for Hajj-e-Tamatto for Hajj-e-Islam Qurbatan Ilallah.
The sequence will be: First Ula (smallest), then Wusta (middle) then Uqba (biggest).
The stoning must be performed between sunrise and sunset. The other conditions being the same as mentioned earlier.

Please Note:

Experience has shown that the best time for stoning on the 10th is after zawwal, and on the 11th and 12th the best time is between 7 am and 11 am. This is not a fiqhi ruling.

For some individuals it may become wajib to spend the night of the 13th in Mina followed by the stoning of all the three jamaraat on the day of the 13th, but normally people do not face this except for certain individuals which will be mentioned later.

On the 11th besides stoning the Jamaraah there is no other wajibaat to be performed. Hence you may rest in Mina or you may return to Makkah. In Makkah you may either rest or perform the 5 waajibaat of Makkah. In all conditions you must return to Mina to spend the night there.

Return from Mina:

On the 12th of zilhijja after stoning all the three jamaraat it is wajib to stay in Mina till zuhr. Thereafter you may leave Mina for Makkah, anytime before sunset. If you do not leave Mina before sunset you will have to spend this night (the night of the 13th in Mina), thereafter you may leave the following day only after stoning all the three jamaraat. However you can leave at anytime. Thus you will leave Mina after zuhr (till sunset) on the 12th or at anytime on the 13th. If you have already performed the 5 waajibaat of Makkah then your hajj is now complete, but if you have not performed the 5 waajibaat of Makkah then, after your return to Makkah from Mina first perform them so that your hajj can be complete, and know that Allah (swt) (who accepts every worship performed with a sincere heart by a momin) has purified you of every sin and according to traditions of the maasumeen you are now as masum as you were when you were a newborn baby. Try to obey Allah (swt) by keeping away from sins and keep up the self control that you showed during hajj even after you return to your country. And be careful not to sin further. May Allah (swt) accept your Hajj.

Some Important Details:

1. Along with hajj there is a great emphasis on ziyaraat of Madinah Munawwarah. However you may choose to go to Madinah before or after Hajj.

2. It is not wajib to stay in Madinah for 8 days or to perform 40 salaats in Madinah.

3. After performing Umra-e-Tamatto it is not allowed to leave Makkah till hajj is complete. Thus you may not even go to Jeddah or Arafat or Mina, not even for ziyaraat.

4. Sujood on the stone flooring of Masjidul Haram and Masjidun Nabawi are allowed, but on areas covered by carpet do Sujood on straw mats/fans or on paper. However Imam Khomeini and Agha Khamenei consider Sujood on carpet (in this connection) to be correct.

5. According to the current Maraaje it is allowed to do Umra-e-Mufrada even in the months of Shawwal, Zilqada and Zilhijja, but never between Umra-e-Tamatto and Hajj-e-Tamatto.

6. One who purposely does not perform Tawaf-un-Nisa will have to go back himself to perform it. But if one forgets to do Tawaf-un-Nisa, he can appoint a representative to perform Tawaf-un-Nisa on his behalf.

7. Shariat orders a traveler to shorten all his four rakaat salaats to two rakaat, but in four places even a traveler can choose to pray either four rakaats or shorten it to two, which includes Makkah and Madinah. In the opinion of Agha Khoei, Agha Khamenei and Agha Seestani this facility is for the entire city of Madinah and Makkah. Thus you have the choice to pray either four rakaat or two rakaat whether you are in the Masjid or at your residence. According to Agha Khomeini this ruling is limited to Masjidul Haraam and Masjidun Nabawi, in the rest of the city a traveler must recite qasr salaat. A traveler is a person who stays in a place for less than 10 days. Thus if you are staying in Madinah or Makkah for 10 or more days you will recite 4 rakaat salaats.

8. There is thawaab in joining the brothers of Ahle-Sunnah in Jamaat. Hence it is better to recite salaat with the Niyyat of Jamaat in Masjidul Haraam and Masjidun Nabawi. But now you will recite Hamd and the Sarah also yourself and the entire salaat will be recited in a low voice even if it is Maghrib, Isha or Fajr salaat.

Umra-e-Mufrada: (This is the general Umra which has nothing to do with Hajj.) Although this booklet is about Hajj, it is still appropriate to mention about Umra-e-Mufrada too, especially because some people go to Makkah initially then leave for Madinah, then again return to Makkah for Hajj. For the initial entry to Makkah such people have to perform Umra-e-Mufrada and they need to know the method of performing the same.

The 5 waajibaat mentioned above for Umra-e-Tamatto are the same for Umra-e-Mufrada, only the Niyyat will differ and is as follows:

a. At the time of wearing ehram: I’m wearing the ehram for Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

b. For tawaf: I’m performing the tawaf of Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

c. For Salaat of tawaf: I’m reciting the salaat of tawaf of Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

d. For Sa’ee: I’m performing the sa’ee of Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

e. For Taqseer; I’m performing the taqseer to relieve myself of ehram for Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

After these 5 waajibaat have been performed two additional waajibaat have to be performed which are not parts of Umra-e-Tamatto:

1. Tawaf-un-Nisa: After performing the taqseer return to the Kaa’ba and perform a tawaf (of seven rounds) exactly as done before. The Niyyat will be I’m performing Tawaf-un-Nisa of Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

2. Salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa: In exactly the same manner as you have done before; recite a two rakaat salaat behind Maqame Ibrahim with this Niyyat: I’m performing salaat of Tawaf-un-Nisa of Umra-e-Mufrada Qurbatan Ilallah.

With this you have completed the Umra-e-Mufrada. Tawaf-un-Nisa and its salaat are wajib for women and children too, whether they are married or unmarried.

Other Umras:

v If someone wishes to perform further Umras after Hajj or right at the beginning, then a majority of maraaje have placed time restrictions on this. Some Maraaje opine that only one Umra can be performed per month. Some say that there should be a minimum gap of 10 days between two Umra. According to Agha Khoei and Agha Seestani, if someone is performing two Umras for himself then a gap of one month between the two Umras is necessary. But in this case distance of one month does not mean a gap pf 29/30 days. It means a change of months. But if someone is performing these Umras for different people then no gap between consecutive Umras is required. You may even perform one Umra in the morning followed by another one the same evening. Example: If someone is performing one Umra for self, the second for parents, the third for marhumeen, the fourth for children, then there need not be any gap between the Umras and these can be performed, for example: one per day. According to Imam Khomeini there must be a gap of 30 days between any two consecutive Umra.

v You can perform umra for one or many persons, for a live person or for a dead person or for a group of persons comprising of dead or live persons.

v While residing in Makkah if you wish to perform an Umra then you have to go to a place near Makkah for wearing the ehram. This place is called Tan’eem or Masjid-e-Umra or Masjid-e-Ayesha. You can cab it to Tan’eem, or take a bus from opposite the Haram which will take you to Tan’eem. Tan’eem is located at a distance of 6 miles from the Haram. For the return journey men will again be faced with the problem of having to travel in a closed vehicle. For this return journey from Tan’eem, Imam Khomeini and Agha Khamenei have given permission to travel in a closed vehicle without having to pay any Kaffarah, whether you are traveling in the day or night. Agha Khoei on the basis of ehtiyate-e-wajib prohibits traveling in a closed vehicle on the way back from Masjid-e-Umra, while Agha Seestani allows men to travel in a closed vehicle for the return journey only at night. Hence if the return journey is performed at night all maraaje allow men to use a closed vehicle for the return journey. (Because Agha Khoei has mentioned ehtiyate-e-wajib his followers can refer to someone else.)

v At this Masjid wear the ehram according to method already mentioned. You may also wear the two pieces of cloth from your hotel, go to the Masjid and just do the Niyyat and talbiya there. After wearing the ehram return to the Kaa’ba and perform the umra in exactly the same way as mentioned previously. There are absolutely no differences in the method, only insert the name of the individual in the Niyyat for whom you are doing the Umra. You may either denote the name or the relation. For example: If you are performing this umra for your parents, the Niyyat will be I’m wearing the ehram of Umra-e-Mufrada for my parents Qurbatan Ilallah. Make the appropriate changes in all the Niyyats accordingly.

Note:

Talbiya is a very important and touching zikr, but cannot be recited at every time or at every place. It has already been mentioned when you should stop reciting talbiya for Umra-e-Tamatto or Hajj-e-Tamatto. For Umra-e-Mufrada if you are entering Makkah from outside you should stop reciting the talbiya when you sight the houses of Makkah. If you are coming from Tan’eem, you may keep reciting the talbiya till you see the Kaa’ba.

Some details regarding Proxy (Representation):
A man can represent a woman and vice-versa.
Only he can act as a proxy on whom hajj is not wajib. If hajj is wajib on someone then he should perform his own hajj first.
Only he can be chosen as a proxy whose salaat is absolutely perfect and whose Qiraa’at and pronunciation are correct.
The proxy should follow the rulings of his own marjaa as well as that of the dead person. Some maraaje even require the rulings of the marjaa of the sender, for example: the son of the dead person to be followed. Hence choose only such persons as proxies who have adequate knowledge.

Important Issues Relating to Women:

Many women have to face the issue of Haydh during Hajj. Hence it is important to know a few details:
It is permitted to use pills to delay the onset of Haydh provided it does not cause great harm. It is best to consult a doctor because the effect of these pills can affect the entire Hajj.
Besides these two masjids it is haraam to stay in any other Masjid; however you may enter the other masjids through one door and exit through another without waiting in the Masjid anywhere. This rule also applies the masjids of Miqaats (for example: Masjid Shajarah outside Madinah and Masjid Umra, Makkah) and the other masjids for example Masjid Quba (Madinah), Masjid Jinn (Makkah).
That blood which does not satisfy the conditions of Haydh is called istehaza and the rules of Haydh will not apply, even if it is medically declared to be Haydh. Example: the blood that stops before 3 days (if the blood of Haydh starts and then you stop it with the help of pills before 3 days are complete.) is not Haydh. Similarly if blood exceeds 10 days then the blood in excess of 10 days is not Haydh. The rulings of istehaza will apply to both these bloods.
The blood a Saydani gets till the age of 60 is Haydh. Thereafter it is istehaza. A non-saydani will consider the blood to be that of Haydh up to the age of 50 years, and regarding the blood between the ages of 50 and 60 different maraaje have different rulings. Agha Khomeini and Agha Khamenei say that this is the blood of istehaza. On the basis of ehtiyate wajib Agha Khoei says that this woman must apply the rules of both Haydh and istehaza to this blood. Agha Seestani makes no distinction between a saydani and a non-saydani and says that for both the blood up to the age of 60 years is Haydh. Please bear in mind that the age is calculated on the basis of the lunar calendar.
It is appropriate for women to understand the rulings of istehaza before embarking on the hajj journey especially the differences between qaleela, mutawassita and katheera, and the different rulings which apply to each. Sometimes a separate ghusl needs to be performed for tawaf and a separate ghusl for its salaat. Sometimes wudhu has to be performed before the tawaf and another wudhu is required before salaat of tawaf, sometimes tayyamum is required. Often the wudhu/ghusl has to be performed at a location closest to the haram. It is not enough to perform the wudhu/ghusl at the hotel and then proceed to the haram for tawaf. These details are beyond the scope of this concise booklet. During Haydh all the waajibaat of Hajj and Umra can be performed except those which are required to be performed inside Masjidul Haraam. Hence Haydh is not an obstacle for any wajib except tawaf and its salaat. Ehram can also be worn in the state of Haydh. Some rulings will be mentioned, but please refer to books of ulema or your maraaje for details.

If Haydh comes during Umra-e-Tamatto:

If Haydh starts before wearing ehram of Umra-e-Tamatto, she should still wear her ehram, reach Makkah and then wait till Haydh stops, as has been mentioned previously. This same rule applies to the woman who did not have Haydh when she wore her ehram but got Haydh before starting the tawaf. Both these women will complete the Umra-e-Tamatto after becoming clear of Haydh. But if Haydh starts after performing tawaf and its salaat, this lady should perform the remaining waajibaat of Umra-e-Tamatto (sa’ee & taqseer) while she is in the state of Haydh and remove the ehram.

Important Ruling:

It is wajib for a lady to wait till she is clear of Haydh in order to perform the remaining waajibaat of Umra-e-Tamatto, however if she does not have the time to wait because the time for the next part i.e. Hajj-e-Tamatto has arrived, for example: She arrived in Makkah on the second of Zilhijja and her Haydh will end on the 10th of zilhijja, whereas Hajj-e-Tamatto starts on the 9th of zilhijja, then there are different aspects to this situation:
If at the time of wearing ehram she was in Haydh and was sure that the Haydh will not be over by the time the second part of Hajj starts, then at the time of wearing ehram, she must do the Niyyat of Hajj-e-Ifrad and not that of Umra-e-Tamatto. According to Agha Khoei such a lady can also do Niyyat of mafizzima. In this case she will neither perform Umra-e-Tamatto nor Hajj-e-Tamatto, but her Hajj will start with Hajj-e-Ifrad and she will follow it with an Umra-e-Mufrada. So this lady thinks that she will not become clean before the second part of hajj will start, hence she wears the ehram with the Niyyat of Hajj-e-Ifrad. But suppose her estimation was wrong and now she finds that she has become free of Haydh before the second part of Hajj is to start, then according to Agha Khomeini this ehram of Hajj-e-Ifrad that she had worn is invalid, she has to wear a new ehram with the Niyyat of Umra-e-Tamatto and she must perform Umra-e-Tamatto and Hajj-e-Tamatto as normal. According to Agha Khoei if at the time of wearing ehram she had worn it with the Niyyat of Hajj-e-Ifrad then the ruling is the same as that of Imam Khomeini, but if she had worn the ehram with Niyyat of mafizzima then with this ehram she should perform Umra-e-Tamatto and perform Hajj as normal. According to Agha Seestani this lady simply has to change her Niyyat and perform Umra-e-Tamatto. In this issue we could not obtain the ruling of Agha Khamenei.
If at the time of wearing the ehram a lady was in the state of Haydh and she thought that she will be become free of Haydh and will have the opportunity to complete Umra-e-Tamatto, but her estimate was wrong and her Haydh did not get over by the time the second part of Hajj arrived, then her hajj will change to Hajj-e-Ifrad. In this issue, too, we could not obtain the ruling of Agha Khamenei.
If the Haydh starts after wearing the ehram but before starting the tawaf and if before she becomes clear of the Haydh, the second part of the hajj (to reach Arafah on 9th zilhijja wearing the ehram) starts then according to Agha Khomeini she should change her Niyyat to that of Hajj-e-Ifrad. According to Agha Khoei and Agha Seestani she has a choice: she can either change her Niyyat to that of Hajj-e-Ifrad or she can continue with the Niyyat of Umra-e-Tamatto, leave out the tawaf and its salaat, perform the sa’ee and taqseer, wear the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto, go to Arafah and perform all the acts of Hajj-e-Tamatto and when she returns to Makkah for the tawaf of Hajj-e-Tamatto, then first she should perform the tawaf of Umra-e-Tamatto followed by its salaat and then perform the tawaf of Hajj-e-Tamatto. In this issue, too, we could not obtain the ruling of Agha Khamenei.
If the Haydh starts after wearing the ehram, performing the tawaf and salaat, then she should perform the sa’ee and taqseer in the state of Haydh as has been mentioned earlier.

If Haydh comes during Hajj-e-Tamatto:

If a lady gets Haydh during Hajj-e-Tamatto, she should perform the hajj in the same way as those ladies perform who do not have Haydh, and wait to perform the acts of Makkah (tawaf of hajj, its salaat, sa’ee, tawaf-un-nisa, its salaat) till she becomes clear of her Haydh. Once she becomes clear then she should perform these, but if she is unable to wait (for example she will become clean only on the 16th of zilhijja, whereas her return flight is on the 14th of zilhijja, then she should appoint a representative who will perform the tawaf and its salaat for her, then she should perform the sa’ee herself (without entering the Masjid to reach Safa, use the road from outside), and then appoint a representative to perform Tawaf-un-Nisa and its salaat. Take care to appoint a representative whose salaat is absolutely correct. Hence in the state of Haydh the lady can wear the ehram of Hajj (but she should not go inside Masjidul Haram), she can go to Arafah, Muzdalifa, and Mina, perform the Rami, sacrifice, taqseer and stay the nights in Mina. None of these require the lady to be Tahir.

Hajj-e-Ifrad:

People who live away from the city of Makkah have to perform the hajj called Hajj-e-Tamatto and the Hajj which is wajib on the people of Makkah is called Hajj-e-Ifrad, but sometimes Hajj-e-Ifrad becomes wajib even on people who live away from Makkah, especially ladies in Haydh, hence a short description follows:

The hajj performed by the people living away from Makkah is in two parts and both together constitute the Hajj, whereas Hajj-e-Ifrad has only one part – the Hajj. The method of Hajj-e-Ifrad is nearly the same as the second part of the Hajj and if the lady is performing Hajj-e-Ifrad from first (at the time of wearing ehram her responsibility is to perform Hajj-e-Ifrad), then she will wear the ehram with the Niyyat of Hajj-e-Ifrad as follows: I’m wearing the ehram for my wajib Hajj-e-Ifrad Qurbatan Ilallah, but to begin with if she had worn the ehram of Umra-e-Tamatto and after reaching Makkah her responsibility became Hajj-e-Ifrad, then she should change her Niyyat that now I’m performing Hajj-e-Ifrad Qurbatan Ilallah. After reaching Makkah, while her companions will perform the Umra-e-Tamatto and remove its ehram and then after wait of a few days will wear the ehram of Hajj-e-Tamatto and leave for Arafah, she will stay in Makkah in the state of ehram and will leave with this ehram, for Arafah with everybody else. Thereafter she will perform the same acts as the other hujjaj perform, but sacrifice is not wajib in Hajj-e-Ifrad (although it is mustahab). Hence on the 10th of zilhijja after performing the Rami she can perform her taqseer and remove her ehram (Others can perform taqseer/halaq only after performing the sacrifice). She will perform the stay of Mina and the acts of Makkah just as the other Hujjaj do and this hajj is correct and she has also discharged her wajib responsibility.

However after this hajj (if it is possible for her), she should perform an Umra-e-Mufrada. For details please contact ulema or reliable books of your marjaa.

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IMPORTANT PLACES IN /AROUND KAABAA

Approximately 70 Prophets are buried in the courtyard of the Ka’ba. Some say even Prophet Hood(a) is buried here. Hence the entire courtyard is significant for acceptance of duas. However some places are more exalted than others.

1.} Haja r e Aswad: In all 7 rounds of tawaf, whenever the the Holy Prophet(s) passed by the Hajar e Aswad, he would kiss it by hand (kept hand on the stone and kissed his hand). He performed this same action at Rukn e Yamani too. If he(s) was doing tawaf on camel, he would kiss by gesture.

Thus scholars recommend kissing all 4 corners by gesture, with special emphasis on Rukne Yamani and Hajar e Aswad.

After tawaaf go and kiss Hajar e Aswad and Rukn e Yamani with mouth. This is also a worship which is not to be abandoned unless one fears falling into haram eg the wrist or hair of women will be exposed.

2.} Maqaam e Ibrahim: Is a stone from heaven

Mentioned twice in the Quran

The footprints of Prophet Ibrahim(a) are embedded on this stone.

Prophet Ibrahim(a) stood on this very stone while building the Ka’ba. When the wall reached a height such that he could not reach out to put any further stones, this stone(maqame ibrahim) would rise above the ground so that Prophet Ibrahim could put further stones to complete the walls of the Ka’ba.

Standing on this very stone, Prophet Ibrahim(a) invited all mankind to Hajj.

Revere and kiss the stone and ask for your wishes here.

3.} Hijre Ismail: This area contains the graves of Lady Hajra(a) and Prophet Ismaeel(a). The grave markings were there till 1975/76, thereafter obliterated. Recite their ziarat in books.

It was at this place that Prophet Ibrahim(a) left his wife(Hajra) and infant son

(Ismaeel), and went back home. Initially Lady Hajra made a shade of palm leaves and lived here for sometime, eventually moving to Mina near Masjid Kheyf

A hadeeth says that Hijre Ismaeel is actually a portion of the interior of the Ka’ba. Hence reciting salat here is like reciting salat inside the Ka’ba.

Hijre Ismaeel was the special worship place of Imam Zainul Abedeen (a). He would reside in makkah for 2-3 months prior to hajj, and spend the nights in Hijr e Ismaeel, clinging to the Kiswa and reciting dua. He would move along the entire length of the wall – below the meezab, left, right, clinging his chest and stomach to the wall. Many duas of Sahifa e Sajjadiya have been recited by him here.

According to the Ahle Sunnat and a minority of Shia scholars Hijr e Ismaeel is “Hateem” a place meaning important for acceptance of du’a. But majority shia scholars insist that Hateem is Multazam {No 7}

Hijre Ismaeel is important for acceptance of any type of dua, but is especially recommended for solving problems related to children eg marriage of daughters or any other off-spring related problems. Recite a 2 rakat salat of talab e hajat followed by your dua. You can also ask somebody else to do this for you.

4.} Mizaab e Rehmah: It is the golden water spout embedded high in the wall of the Ka’ba enclosed by Hijr e Ismaeel.

Below the meezab is the preferred place of worship of Imam Zainul Abedeen(a). Important for acceptance of duas.

Allah’s rehmat is always being showered at this place

5.} Shadharwan : These are the sloping foundational walls along the base of the Ka’ba, and the portion covered by the shadharwan was actually included inside the ka’ba constructed by Prophet Ibrahim (a). Hence the entire shazarwan is important for acceptance of duas, but includes 2 special points

v Ma’zan: From door of Kaaba move towards Hijre Ismaail you will come across a brownish slab{of stone } in Shadharwan {rest is whitish} called ma’zan. At this place the cement required for construction of the Ka’ba was made by mixing mud of heaven and water of kauthar.

Immediately after Zuhoor, Imam e Zamana a.t.f.j. will sit here to accept bayyat from people. Hence also called Maqam e Imam e Zamana (a)

v Between the ma’zan and Hijre Ismaail there is a slab with something in Arabic written {which king put it and when}. This is Makaam e Jibraael. This is where before starting construction of the Ka’ba, Jibrael(a) recited a 2 rakat namaz. To his side Prophet Ibrahim a.s. recited and Prophet Ismail a.s. stood a little behind. { Jibrael (a) showed Prophet Ibrahim(a) how to make Ka’aba.

6.} Mustajar : Mustajar means a place of protection. The worshiper goes into Allah’s protection here.

It is in the wall between Rukne Shaami and Rukne Yamani, from halfway on this wall to Rukne Yamaani. Whenever Imam Ali Redha (a) reached the mustajar in the last{7th} round/shaut during tawaaf, he(a) would cling to the mustajar with his chest, stomach, cheeks and palms, widespread and recite, “Allahumma baito baituka wa abdo abduka wa haazaa maqaamo aa’ezi bika minnaar.{O our Allah, this house is your house and this slave is your slave and at this place, seeks your protection from the hell fire) Even the Prophet(s) performed this action. This action is much recommended, but avoid it in waajib tawaf, try to do it during mustahab tawaf. (But don’t get stuck there. Perform it and remember to complete your tawaf)

7.} Multazam : This is hateem according to most shia scholars

v It is the area between Hajar e Aswad and door of the Ka’ba. It means “the place of clinging”‘

v According to one riwaayat, this was the place where Prophet Adam(a)’s dua was accepted.Therefore it is also called Maqaame e Tauba e Adam.

{another riwaayat is for Jabal e Rehmat}

v Also called Hateem which means “to be rubbed off”, because here peoples’ sins are rubbed off.

v This was the special place of worship of Ameerul momeneen(a). It was at this place that he taught dua e mashlool to the paralysed youth.

v Whenever Prophet Haroon(a) would come to the ka’ba, he would make his children (shabbar and shabbir) sit here .Hence this place is also called musalla e shabbar o shabbir. (Hasnayn(a) have been been named after these 2 children of Prophet Haroon(a)

v Multazam is special for repentance and doing dua for any health related problems.

v The door of the Ka’ba: This is the door to reach Allah(s.w.t). Cling to this door, because it is said that for him who clings to the door and does not let go, eventually the door will be opened for him.

8.} Rukne Yamaani: This is the place where the wall of the Ka’ba had cracked open for Fatima binte Asad, and from where she had entered the Ka’ba to give birth to Ali ibn Abi talib(a). Today there is no evidence of that occurrence in the wall, as this is not that original wall.

It is the rukn of barakaat. Riwayats say that it is door to heaven for the Ahl ul Bayt(a). In every round of the tawaf, the Holy Prophet (a) kissed this rukn. The Holy prophet is reported to have said, “Whenever I do tawaf, Jibraeel(a) does tawaf in front of me, and as soon as Jibraeel(a) comes near Rukn e Yamani, he runs to it to kiss it, as it contains so much barakaat. In Arabic barakat is also called Yameen, in addition this corner also faces Yemen , hence called Rukn e Yamani.

A very important place for acceptance of prayers, especially recite Rabbana aatena fiddunya hasanataw wa fil akhirate hasanataw wa kena azaabannar here. Rather between Rukne Yamaani and Hajar e Aswad is place for dua, especially “Rabbana aatena…..”

Other Important Places

All these places are not tourist spots. These are all places of worship, places to do duas and seek fulfillment of your wishes. Hence do some ibadat, ask for your desires (Allah wants you to ask) and then vacate the place for others.

1.} Mount Safa: To sit on Safa is, in itself, a worship. But if you sit here for the time it takes an average person to recite Sura e Ahzaab( approx 20 mins), it is very beneficial for increase in sustenance(rozi). During this time if you recite Sura Waqiya, it is excellent for sustenance [sit for ~ 20 mins and recite sura Waqiya].

Riwaayat: If one sits on Safa for the time it takes an average person to read Sura Ahzaab, it is better than the door of the Ka’ba, for sustenanace(rozi).

2.} Baab e Bani Shaybaah :

v This is from where the Holy prophet s.a.w.s. and all Maasumeen a.s. entered Masjidul Haraam. During the Prophet’s time there was no door, only an arch; later a door in form of a pulpit (minbar) was made here. Nowadays, too, there is no door.

v Location: It is in the sehen directly in line of Maqaame Ibraahim- behind it, after 8-10 tiles, where the 2 lines (coming from the steps side) end. Sometimes is included in women enclosure for saalt.

v Babus Salaam {door no 24} used to be directly behind Baab e Bani Shayba. Therefore it was mustahab to enter the Haram from there, especially for 1st umrah of trip. However in the latest renovation, Babus Salam has been removed, but the location remains. Hence enter from thereabouts.

Baab e Salaam behind Safa and Marwa

v The idol, Hubal is buried just a little in front of Baab e Bani Shaybah. Prophet s.a.w.s desired all hujjaj to trample over Hubal before entering Masjidul Haraam.

v When Imam e Zamaana a.t.f.s. comes, people will enter through Baaus Salaam.

3.} Neelayn {sutoon} Akhdarayn {green}: These are the 2 green pillars/sutoon between which men do harwalaa during Saee. This is where Lady Haajra ran {instead of walking} because it was low and she could not see her son.

4.} Well of Zam-Zam: This is the place where Lady Hajra lay her infant son Ismaail on the ground, when she went in search of water. The Zam zam sprang here, under the feet of Prophet Ismaeel(a). ZamZAm literally means ‘stop stop’

Earlier there was a mark here and written: “Haadha beiro zamzam.” Later this marking was obliterated.

Location: It is somewhere between the green light and Maqaam e Ibraahim. Walk from the green light towards Maqame Ibrahim, keeping your dua in mind, and tell Allah- this is my dua when I reach that palce. This place is extremely important for acceptance of dua. Dua done while standing on the well of zamzam is so full of barkaat that not just the seeker, but all his descendants till the day of qayamat will reap the benefits of the dua.

Doing dua and seeking fulfillment of your desires, while drinking the water of zamzam is, by itself, a very excellent deed. This merit is not limited to drinking this water while performing umrah/hajj, but extends to whenever you drink this water in Masjidul Haram. There is a short dua in books too – memorizes it and recite it whenever you drink this water.

Bait e Umme Hani: Was in courtyard. Umme Hani was the older sister of Ameeerul Mo’mineena.s. The Holy Prophet s.a.w.s. used to often rest here at night and even went to Meraj from here. Recite 2 rakat namaz here. It is the 14th tile from Rukne Yamani.

Note: The Holy Prophet is reported to have said, ‘He who does Tawaf of the House at noon with his head bare, bare-foot, making his steps short, closing his eyes (overlooking, disregarding others) and touching the Black Stone in every round he makes, without hurting anyone nor cutting short his praise and glorifying of Allah, will be rewarded for each step he makes with seventy thousand good deeds. Seventy thousand of his evils will be wiped off; his rank will be increased by seventy thousand grades; he will be given the reward as if seventy thousand slaves, each whose price is ten thousand dirhams were freed on his behalf; seventy of his family members would be cured of any sickness, and seventy thousand of his needs would be granted -sooner or later.’

THE IMPORTANCE OF CRYING TO THE FEAR OF ALLAH ALMIGHTY

Reading the Qur’aan and pondering its meanings.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“Say (O Muhammad to them): Believe in it (the Qur’aan) or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration.

108. And they say: Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the Promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.

109. And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility”[al-Isra’ 17:107-109]

 

“Those were they unto whom Allaah bestowed His Grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nooh (Noah), and of the offspring of Ibraaheem (Abraham) and Israel, and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the Verses of the Most Gracious (Allaah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrate and weeping”[Maryam 19:58]

It was narrated that Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

 

The Prophet ((peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me: “Recite the Qur’aan to me.” I said: “O Messenger of Allaah (), shall I recite it to you when it was revealed to you?” He () said: “I like to hear it from someone else.” So I recited Soorat al-Nisa’ to him, and when I reached this verse – “How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these people?” [al-Nisa’ 4:41] – he () said: “That is enough for now.” I turned to him and saw his eyes were streaming with tears.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5050; Muslim, 800.

3 – Knowing the greatness of the reward for weeping, especially when one is alone.

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

 

The Messenger of Allaah ()said: “A man who weeps for fear of Allaah will not enter Hell until the milk goes back into the udder, and dust produced (when fighting) for the sake of Allaah and the smoke of Hell will never coexist.”

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1633; al-Nasaa’i, 3108; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.

“until the milk goes back into the udder” is a metaphor for it being impossible, as in the verse where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“and they will not enter Paradise until the camel goes through the eye of the needle”[al-A’raaf 7:40].

Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi.

And it was narrated that he said:

 

The Messenger of Allaah () (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are seven whom Allaah will shade with His shade on the day when there will be no shade but His: a just ruler; a young man who grows up worshipping Allaah; a man whose heart is attached to the mosque; two men who love one another for the sake of Allaah, meeting and parting on that basis; a man who is called (to commit sin) by a woman of high status and great beauty and he says, ‘I fear Allaah’; a man who gives in charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand is doing; and a man who remembers Allaah when he is alone and his eyes flow with tears.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 660; Muslim, 1031.

Weeping when alone is singled out because being alone is a time when the heart tends to become harder and there is a stronger motive to commit sin, and it is farthest removed from the possibility of showing off. So if a person strives to do this, and makes himself feel the greatness and might of Allaah, and his eyes flow with tears, then he deserves to be beneath the shade of the Throne of the Most Merciful on the Day when there will be no shade but His shade.

4 – Thinking about your situation and your boldness in committing sin, and fearing to meet Allaah in such a state.

One of the righteous people used to weep night and day, and something was said to him about that. He said: “I am afraid that Allaah will see me committing sin and will say: ‘Go away from Me for I am angry with you.’” Hence Sufyaan used to weep and say: “I am afraid that my faith will be taken away at the moment of death.”

Ismaa’eel ibn Zakariya described Habeeb ibn Muhammad, who was a neighbour of his. He said: “Every evening I heard him weeping and every morning I heard him weeping, so I went to his wife and said: ‘What is the matter with him? He weeps in the evening and he weeps in the morning!’ She said to me: ‘By Allaah, when evening comes he fears that he will not live till morning and when morning comes he fears that he will not live till evening.’”

The salaf used to weep and grieve a great deal.

When Yazeed al-Raqaashi was criticized for weeping a great deal and it was said to him, “If the Fire had been created exclusively for you, you would not weep more than this,” he said: “Has the Fire been created for anyone other than me and my companions and brothers among the jinn and mankind?”

When ‘Ata’ al-Sulaymi was asked: “What is this grief?” he said: “Woe to you! Death is close at hand, the grave is my house, on the Day of Resurrection I will stand and my path is over a bridge across Hell, and I do not know what will become of me.”

Faddalah ibn Sayfi used to weep a great deal. A man entered upon him when he was weeping and said to his wife: “What is the matter with him?” She said: “He says that he wants to undertake a long journey and he does not have proper provision for it.”

One night al-Hasan woke up weeping, and he disturbed the other people in the house with his weeping. They asked him what was the matter and he said: “I remembered a sin that I committed and I wept.”

It was narrated that Tameem al-Daari (may Allaah be pleased with him) recited this verse (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe (in the Oneness of Allaah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds” [al-Jaathiyah 45:21]

and he started repeating it and weeping until morning came.

Hudhayfah (may Allaah be pleased with him) used to weep intensely, and it was said to him: “Why are you weeping?” He said: “I do not know what is ahead of me – Divine pleasure or divine wrath.”

Sa’d ibn al-Akhram said: I was walking with Ibn Mas’ood and he passed by the blacksmiths, who had brought a piece of iron out of the fire. He stood and looked at the molten iron and wept.

5 – Making yourself feel regret and feeling that you have fallen short in your duties towards Allaah.

The tears of the repentant at night quenches thirst and cure sickness, as the Shaykh of the Mufassireen, Abu Ja’far al-Tabari, said in his commentary on the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“Do you then wonder at this recitation (the Qur’aan)?
60. And you laugh at it and weep not”[al-Najm 53:59-60]

Do not weep at the warnings contained therein to those who disobey Allaah, when you are people who commit sin,

 

“Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)” [al-Najm 53:61]

– you are heedless of the lessons and reminders contained therein, turning away from its verses.

Jaami’ al-Bayaan ‘an Ta’weel Aayi al-Qur’aan, 27/82.

6 – Weeping out of fear of a bad end.

It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

 

When the Messenger of Allaah () (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed by al-Hijr (the land of the people of Thamood) he said: “Do not enter the dwellings of those who wronged themselves, lest what befell them befall you, unless you are weeping.” Then the Messenger of Allaah () (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) covered his head and walked quickly until he had left the valley.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3380; Muslim, 2980.

Al-Nawawi included this hadeeth in a chapter entitled “Weeping and feeling fear when passing by the graves of the wrongdoers and the places where they were killed, and expressing one’s need of Allaah, and being careful not to be negligent in that.” 

Riyaadh al-Saaliheen, p. 373.

7 – Listening to moving speeches and lectures that will soften the heart.

It was narrated that al-‘Irbaad ibn Saariyah (may Allaah be pleased with him), who was one of those who used to weep, said:

 

“The Messenger of Allaah () delivered a deeply moving speech at which our eyes began to overflow and our hearts melted.”

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2676; Abu Dawood, 4607; Ibn Maajah, 42; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.

THE VIRTUES AND IMPORTANCE OF FRIDAY

There is a special day in Islam which Allaah has singled out for blessings which are not to be found in any other days. This day is Friday, to which Allaah guided the Muslims and from which He led the Jews and Christians astray. It has many special features, some of which we will describe here: 

1 – It was the teaching of the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to honour this day it and single it out for special acts of worship that belong exclusively to this day. In Fajr (early morning prayer) on Friday he used to recite the Soorahs ‘Alif-laam-meem tanzeel’ (al-Sajdah, no. 32) and ‘Hal ata ‘ala’l-insaan’ (al-Insaan, no. 76).

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite these two soorahs in the Fajr prayer on Friday because they refer to what happened and will happen on that day, for they speak of the creation of Adam, the resurrection and the gathering of mankind, all of which happened or will happen on a Friday. So reciting them on this day is a reminder to his ummah (nation) of what has happened and what is yet to come.

This is one of the special features of Friday.
2 – It is mustahabb (recommended) to send lots of blessings upon the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the day of Friday and the night before, because he said:

“Send lots of blessings upon me on Friday and the night before.”

(Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 3/249; classed as saheeh (sound) by al-Arna’oot).

3 – Jumu’ah (Friday) prayers are held on this day; this is one of the most strongly-affirmed duties of Islam, and one of the greatest gatherings of the Muslims. It is the greatest and most obligatory gathering in which they come together, apart from ‘Arafah [a place near Makkah (Mecca) where the pilgrims stand and pray during the Hajj or pilgrimage]. Whoever neglects Jumu’ah prayers out of carelessness, Allaah will place a seal over his heart. The people of Paradise will be brought closer (to Allaah) on the Day of Resurrection and they will see Allaah sooner, commensurate with how close they were to the imam on the day of Jumu’ah and how early they came to Jumu’ah prayers.

4 – The command to do ghusl (take a bath for the purpose of purification) on Friday; this command is most emphatic.

5 – Wearing perfume on Friday; this is better than wearing perfume on any other day of the week.

6 – Cleaning the teeth with the siwaak (tooth stick); this is better than using the siwaak on any other day.

7 – Going to the prayers early.

8 – Keeping oneself busy with prayer, dhikr (remembering Allaah) and reading Qur’aan until the imaam comes out to give the khutbah (sermon).

9 – Listening attentively to the khutbah, because listening to it is obligatory according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions. If a person fails to do that he is engaging in idle talk, and whoever does that has not prayed Jumu’ah. In al-Musnad a marfoo’ report [i.e., a report which is attributed to the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings be upon him)] states:

“The one who says to his companion, ‘Be quiet and listen,’ has not prayed Jumu’ah.”

(Narrated by Ahmad, 2034; classed as hasan by al-Arna’oot. See Haashiyat Zaad al-Ma’aad, 1/377. Also narrated by al-Bukhaari (934) and Muslim (851), with the wording: “If you say to your companion, ‘Be quiet and listen,’ on a Friday when the imaam is delivering the khutbah, then you have engaged in idle talk.”)

10 – Reading Soorat al-Kahf (no. 18) during the day of Friday. It was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on a Friday, light will shine for him from beneath his feet to the clouds of the sky, which will shine on him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven from one Friday to the next.”

(Narrated by al-Haakim, 2/368; classed as saheeh by al-Arna’oot).

11 – It is repeated every week. Ibn Maajah narrated in his Sunan that Abu Lubaabah ibn ‘Abd al-Mundhir said:

“The Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Friday is the best and greatest of days before Allaah, and it is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha (the Feast of Sacrifice) and the day of al-Fitr (the Feast of Breaking the Fast). It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam; on this day Adam came down to earth; on this day Allaah caused Adam to die; on this day there is an hour during which no one asks Allaah for something but He will grant it to him, so long as he does not ask for something haraam (forbidden); and on this day the Hour [i.e., the Day of Judgement] will begin, so there is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no tree that does not feel some apprehension on Friday.”

(Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084. Al-Busayri said: its isnaad is hasan, and it was classed as saheeh in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 888).

12 – It is mustahabb (recommended) to wear the best clothes one has on Friday. Imaam Ahmad narrated in his Musnad that Abu Ayyoob said:

“I heard the Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, ‘Whoever takes a bath on Friday, puts on perfume if he has some, wears his best clothes then goes out , walking in a dignified manner until he reaches the mosque, then he prostrates in prayer if he wants and does not disturb anybody, then he remains quiet until the imaam comes out and he prays, that will be an expiation from one Friday to the next.’”

(Narrated by Ahmad in al-Musnad, 23059; classed as hasan by al-Ana’oot).

In Sunan Abi Dawood it is narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Salaam that he heard the Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say on the minbar (pulpit) one Friday:

“There is nothing wrong with any one of you if he buys two garments for Friday other than his workaday clothes.”

(Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1078; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 953).

13 – It is mustahabb on Fridays to perfume the mosque with incense. Sa’eed ibn Mansoor narrated from Na’eem ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Mujmir that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) commanded him to perfume the mosque of Madeenah with incense every Friday until noontime. This is why Na’eem was called al-Mujmir (from the word tajmeer meaning perfuming with incense). 

14 – It is a day on which sins are expiated. In Saheeh al-Bukhaari it is narrated that Salmaan al-Faarisi said:

“The Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘No man takes a bath on Friday and purifies himself as much as he can, and makes his hair tidy, and puts on perfume, then goes out, and does not come between two people, then prays as Allaah decrees for him and listens attentively when the imaam speaks, but he will be forgiven for his bad deeds between this Friday and the other.’”

(al-Bukhaari, 843).

15 – On Friday there is the “hour of response” which is an hour in which no Muslim asks Allaah for something but He will grant it. In al-Saheehayn it is narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“The Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘On Friday there is an hour in which no Muslim asks for something whilst he is standing in prayer, but it will be given to him”

– and he demonstrated the shortness of that time with his hands.

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 883; Muslim, 1406).

16 – On Fridays there is the khutbah (sermon) which is intended to praise and glorify Allaah, and to bear witness to His Oneness and to the Messengership of His Messenger, and to remind His slaves of His blessings, to warn them of His punishment and wrath, to advise them of that which will bring them closer to Him and His Paradise, and to forbid them that which will bring them closer to His anger and Hell. This is the purpose behind the khutbah and of gathering to hear it.

17 – It is the day on which it is mustahabb to devote oneself to worship and it has an advantage over other days by being characterized with all kinds of worship, obligatory and mustahabb. Allaah has made for the followers of each religion a day on which they devote themselves to worship and refrain from worldly work. So Friday is a day of worship, and in relation to other days it is like Ramadaan in relation to other months; the “hour of response” on Friday is like Laylat al-Qadr (the Night of Decree) in Ramadaan. Hence whoever gets it right on Friday, his whole week will be good, and whoever gets it right in Ramadan, his whole year will be good, and whoever gets it right on Hajj, his whole life will be good. Friday is the measure of the week, Ramadaan is the measure of the year and Hajj is the measure of one’s life. And Allaah is the Source of strength.

18 – It is the day with which Allaah has exclusively favoured this ummah, and from which He led the People of the Book astray before them, as it says in al-Saheeh, where it is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“The sun has never risen or set on any day better than Friday. Allaah guided us to it and led the people away from it. The people are behind us in this respect. It (Friday) is for us, Saturday is for the Jews and Sunday is for the Christians.”

(Narrated by Ahmad, 10305, classed as saheeh by Ibn Khuzaymah, 3/114).

19 – It is the day which Allaah chose from among all the days of the week, just as He chose Ramadaan from among the months of the year and Laylat al-Qadr from among all the nights, and Makkah from among all places on earth, and Muhammad  from all of mankind.

Muslims have other several special occasions, such as:

1 – The blessed month of Ramadaan, which is a month that has special characteristics. You will find more information in Question no. 13480.

2 – Eid al-Fitr (the Feast of Breaking the Fast). This is the first day of the month of Shawwaal, on which the Muslims express their joy at the blessing which Allaah has bestowed upon them by enabling them to complete the month-long fast of Ramadaan.

3 – The Day of ‘Arafah, which is the ninth day of the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah, the day of the greater Pilgrimage (Hajj), the greatest pillar of the Hajj. It has many virtues, details of which are to be found in question no. 7284.

4 – Eid al-Adha (the Feast of Sacrifice).
The Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“The best of days is the Day of Sacrifice.”

This is the tenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah. It was narrated that ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Aamir said:

“The Messenger of Allaah  (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The Day of ‘Arafah, the Day of Sacrifice and the Days of al-Tashreeq [the three days following the Day of Sacrifice] are a festival for us Muslims, and they are days of eating and drinking.’”

(Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 704; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 620).

Laylatul qadr the night of power better than thousand months

 Laylatul qadr the night of power better than thousand months

Laylatul qadr the night of power better than thousand months
Crowning Glory

Laylatul Qadr is the crowning glory of the holy month of Ramadhaan. It is associated with the sending down of the Qur’an Majeed, the last Book of Allah on His last

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), for the guidance of mankind. The Qur’an Majeed describes this Night.

“We have indeed revealed this (message) in the Night of Power: And what will explain to you what the Night of Power is? The Night of Power is better than a thousand

months. Therein come down the Angels and the Spirit (Jibraeel) by Allah’s permission, on every errand: Peace! This until the rise of Morn!” (Surah 97)

The Night of Power is the night of spiritual bliss. Our Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) is reported to have said concerning Ramadhaan:

“Verily this month has come to you; and therein is a night which is better than a thousand Months. Whosoever is deprived of it, is deprived of all good; and none is

deprived of its good except a totally unfortunate person”. (Ibn Majah)
“Whosoever stands up (in prayer) at the Night of Power out of faith and hopeful of reward, all his past sins will be forgiven.”(Targhib)

Better than a thousand months

A thousand months are equivalent to 83 years and 4 months. Fortunate is the person who spends this night in prayer. The man or woman, who prays for the whole night

during this Night, will deserve blessings and reward for the period as if he or she had been praying for eighty three years and four months consecutively. Since the Night

of Power is better than one thousand months no one can actually measure the extent as to how much better it is.

Exclusive

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “Laylatul Qadr has been bestowed by Allah to my Ummah (People). It was not given to any people

before this.” (Dur-Mansoor).

How manifest and replete the special bounties and mercies of Allah Ta’ala are upon this Ummat is quite really beyond imagination. It will therefore be extremely foolish

to allow ourselves to be deprived of these great blessings at the expense of sheer laziness and a few hours of extra sleep.

Which Night is it?

Although there are different reports in different traditions regarding the exact night, it is almost unanimous that the blessed night occurs in one of the last ten nights of

Ramadhaan and more probably in one of the last ten odd nights i.e. 2lst, 23rd, 25th 27th or 29th night.

The popular opinion is, however, in favour of the 27th Night of Ramadhaan but that is not absolutely certain. The traditions indicate that it is to be sought in one of the last

ten nights and preferably in the last three odd nights. It was therefore the practice of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) and his companions to make I’tikaaf

in the Mosque for the whole time offering Divine service during the last ten days of Ramadhaan.

Hazrath Aisha (Radhiallaahu Anha) reported that the Apostle of Allah said: “Search for the Blessed Night in the odd (nights) from the last ten (nights) of Ramadhaan”

(Bukhari).

Hazrath Aisha has narrated another saying:
“I asked: O Messenger of Allah! Tell me if I were to find a Night of Power, what should I recite therein?” Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)

advised her to recite:

Al-laa-hum-ma in-na-ka ‘afoow-wan tu-hib-bul-’af wa fa-fu ‘an-ni.
O Allah! You are Forgiving, You love forgiveness, so forgive me. (Bukhari).

Special attention should therefore be given to the excessive recitation of this dua on the blessed night. Furthermore one may engage in lengthy rakaats of Tahajjud salaat,

Tilaawat of the Qur’an? Dua, Zikr, etc.

The worship and the vigil of the Night of Power are a treat to the soul. The heart tends to melt into tears of heartfelt gratitude. The body is in a state of angelic ecstasy

The soul strives to reach nearer to Almighty Allah. In this holy month of Ramadhaan let us strive to seek the Night of Power and its bliss. May Allah reward us with His

bountiful blessings. Aameen.

Lailat-ul-Qadr – The night of Power

In this night (27th of Ramadan), the Holy Quran was sent down from LOH-E-MEHFOOZ (the Preserved Tablet) to the earth. Messenger of ALLAH (Blessings of

Allah and peace be on him) told us to search for Shab-e-Qadr in the odd numbered nights, in the last ten days of Ramzan. So, the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night of

Ramadan could be Shab-e-Qadr.

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that Rasool Allah peace be upon him said, “Look for Lailat-Ul-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadhan.” (Bukhari)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that as much Rasool Allah peace be upon him tried (Ibadat) in the last Ashra (ten days) of Ramadhan, did not try in any of the

Ashra.” (Muslim)

Hazrat Aisha Radiallah Anha stated that I asked Rasool Allah peace be upon him, “If I find Lailatul Qadar then what should I do? HE peace be upon him said, recite this

Dua.”ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI” (Tirmidhi)

Dear visitors, please take advantage of this night, from sunset till sunrise. Offer nawafil (prayers), recite QUR’AAN, do repent (Istaghfar), and Pray for pardon, recite

many many Salawat (Darood Sharif & Salaam) and make benediction (Dua’as).

Special DU’AA of Lailatul QADR:
“ALLAH HUMMA INNAKA A’FUVUN TOHIB BUL AFVA FA’AFU ANNI” (Tirmidhi)
“O Allah! You are the Forgiver and You like forgiving so forgive me”

21st Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak – 1st night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 cycles of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR (Inna anzalna .. )once and Surah IKHLAS (Qul-hu-wal-lah..) once. After completion recite

SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Durood Sharif) seventy (70) times. Benefit: Insha Allah, Angels will pray for forgivenss for that person.

2) Offer 2 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar seventy times.
Astaghfar: “Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A’laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem” OR “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh”
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

3) In this night (21st), recite Surah QADR 21 times.

23rd Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak – 2nd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Effective for forgivness of sins.

2) Offer 8 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (4 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR and Surah IKHLAS once. After completion of this salah (namaaz) recite the third kalima (Kalima Tamjeed) 70

times. After that, plead to Allah Almighty for forgiveness of sins.
Kalima Tamjeed: “Subhan Allahi Wal Hamdu Lillahi Wa La ilaaha illal laho Walla Hu Akbar.Wala Haowla Wala Quwwata illa Billa Hil Aliyil Azeem”.
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), Allah will forgive whoever performs this prayer

3) In the 23rd night recite Surah YAASEEN once and Surah RAHMAAN once.

25th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak – 3rd night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In this night offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’t) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
After Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR one time and Surah IKHLAS five times in each raka’. After completion of this salat recite the first Kalima Tayyab 100 times.
Kalima Tayyab: “Laa ilaaha illal Laho Mohammadur Rasoolullah”.
Benifit: Insha Allah, Allah Tala will give him/her unlimited Sawab (good Deeds)

2) Offer 4 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (2 sets of 2 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS three times. After completion of this salah, recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: “Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A’laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem” OR “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh”
Benefit: This salat is good for the pardoning of sins.

3.Offer two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS fifteen times. After Salat, recite the second Kalima (Kalima-e-Shahaadat) 70 times.
Kalima Shaadat: “Ashadu Anlaa ilaaha illal Lahu Wa Ash Hadu Anna Mohammadan Abduhu Wa Rasoolohu”. Benefit: The reward of this namaaz is freedom from the

punishment of the grave.

4) Recite Surah Dukhan. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah) they will be granted freedom from the punishment of grave.

5) Recite Surah Fath seven times. Beneficial for the fulfillment of desires and wishes.

27th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak – 4th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) In the 27th night, pray 12 cycles of ritual prayer (raka’) (3 set of 4 raka’ each)
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IIKHLAS fifteen times. After salah recite any Astaghfar 70 times.
Astaghfar: “Allah Hummagh Fir Li Wa Tub A’laiyya Inna Ka Innta Tawwabur Raheem” OR “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zambiyon Wa Atoobu ilaiyh”
Benefit: Inhsa Allah, Allah tala will give sawab equal to Ibadah of Ambiya Karam’s (Messengers of Allah) Ibadah.

2) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR 3 times and Surah IKHLAS 27 times, and plead to Allah for the forgiveness of sins.
Benefit: Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the Allah Almighty will forgive all their previous sins.

3) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah TAKAASUR once and Surah IKHLAS three times.
Benefit: Whoever offers this salah, they will be saved from hardship at the time of death, and Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), they will be freed from the punishment of the

grave.

4) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surahh FATIHA, recite Surah IKHLAS seven times and after salah recite this seventy times:
“ASTAGHFIRUL LAA HAL AZEEMAL LAZEE LAA ILAAHA ILLA HUWAL HAIY YUL QAYYOOMU WA ATOOBU ILAIH”
Benfit: Before the person gets up from the praying area, Allah Almighty will pardon them and their parents, and Allah Almighty will Command the angels to adorn the

Paradise for them and it is said that they will not die until they see the blessings (ne’mat) of Paradise with their own eyes.

5) Pray two cycles of ritual prayer (raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH once, Surah IKHLAS three times and after salah, recite Surah QADR 27 times.
Benefit: Effecive for unlimited Sawab of Ibadah.

6) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (1 set of 4 raka’).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA’ recite Surah QADR three times and Surah IKHLAS fifty times and after completion of this salah (namaaz), recite this once in

prostration (sajdah):
“SUBHAAN ALLAAHI WAL HAMDU LILLAAHI WALAA ILAAHA ILLAL LAAHU WALLAA HU AKBAR”
Benefit: After that whatever wish one may have, either worldly or religious, may be pleased. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), their supplication will be fulfilled.

7) In this night, recite Surah Mulk 7 times. It is good for freeing from punishment.

29th Night of Ramadhan-Ul-Mubarak – 5th night of Laitlat-Ul-Qadr

1) Pray four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In every raka’, after Surah FATIHA recite Surah QADR once and Surahh IKHLAS three times. After salah, recite Surah ALAM’NASHRAH 70 times.
Benefit: Efective for the completion of Imaan.

2) Offer four cycles of ritual prayer (raka’). (2 sets of 2 raka’ each).
In each raka’, after Surah FATIHA, recite Surah QADR once and Surah IKHLAS five times. After salah, recite SALAAT-O-SALAAM (Darood Sharif) 100 times.
Benefit: Effective for forgiveness of sins.

3) Recite Surah WAAQIAH seven times. Beneficial for increase in Rizq.

In any night of RAMAZAN-UL-MUBARAK, after taraavih recite Surah QADR seven times. Allah Willing (Insha’Allah), the one who does so, will be saved from all

troubles and afflictions.

On this great night it’s of great benefit to perform Salat-Ul-Tasbih.

Salatul Tasbih

For forgiveness of All Sins

Benefits of Salat-Ul-Tasbih
Our Beloved Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) said to his uncle (father’s brother) Sayyiduna Abbass (may Allah be pleased with him) Oh uncle shall I not

give you Shall I not grant you Shall I not award you Shall I not do mercy on you When you do 10 things Allah will forgive your sins: of the future and of the past; new and

old; those you have forgotten and those you did knowingly; big and small; hidden and revealed. Then he (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) explained the taught the way to pray

Salatul Tasbih and then said if you can pray this salah once a day, if you can not pray once a day then every Friday, and even if this is not possible then once a month and

even if this is not possible then once a year and even if this is not possible then at least once in a lifetime (Abu’Dawood & Tirimzi)

How to perform Salatul Tasbih?
This salaat (namaz) is offered in four rakat at a time and can be read in any part of the day and night besides Zawal and Sunrise and Sunset makrooh times, keeping in

mind the forbidden times for performing Salat (namaaz). But is is preferred before Zuhr (Fatawa Alamgeeri)

The Tasbih to be read in Salaat-Ul-Tasbeeh:
” Subhaan Allahi Wal Hamdulillahi Wa Laa ilaha illal Laahu Wallahu Akbar ”

Method:
Goal is to recite above Tasbih 300 times in Four Rakah with the following method.
In the first rakaat, after reading Sana “Subhaana Kallahumma…”, read the above tasbih 15 times.
Now recite Aaoz “Aoozubillah…”, Bismillah “Bismillah…”, Then read sura Fatiha and a Surah or minimum of three small Ayayhs then read the tasbih 10 times again.
Go to ruku saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar), after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Ruku.
Saying “Samee Allahu Liman Hamidah Rabbana Lakal Hamdh” get up from ruku to qiyam position.
Now read the tasbih 10 times.
Go to Sajdah saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah.
Now go after first Sajdah go to Jalsa (sitting position) saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Sitting in Jalsa read tasbih 10 times.
Go to sajda again saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah again.
Get up to begin 2nd rakat saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar).
Do rakah #2 in same fashion, but before reading Bismillah “Bismillah…”, and Surah Fatiha, read the tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat.
After second Sajdah of Second Rakat sit in Qaidah Oola (first sitting) read Attahiyat, Durood and Dua then get up for 3rd rakaat without saying Salam.
Begin third Rakat, just like the first Rakat, with Sana “Subhaana Kallahumma…”, read the above tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat untill you sit for

Qaidah Akihra (last sitting) after second sajdah of fourth Rakah.
In Qaidah Akihra Attahiyat, Durood, Dua finish Salah with Salam.

Special notes for Salat-Ul-Tasbih:
1) Do not count loudly. It will break Salah
2) Do not count on fingers or by holding a Bead Tasbih in hand. It is Makruh.
3) You may count by pressing the fingers as a reminder. For example if you are in Ruku. You me press pinky of your right hand first for the first count, then the finger

next to it for second count, then the middle finger for third count, following this method untill you reach the pinky of left hand will give you an exact count of ten. Use the

same method in Qayam, Sajdah and Jalsa.
4) If missed a count then make it up in the next posture. For example if forgot to recite Tasbih after Surah in Qayam. Then you may recite Tasbish 20 times instead of 10

in Rukuh after “Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem”. Missed Tasbih cannot be recited in Qayam after ruku and Jalsa between Sajdah. If you missed the Tasbih in Ruku then

recite 20 in the first Sajdah instead of the Qayam after rukuh. Similarly if missed the Tasbih in first Sajdah then do not make it up in Jalsa. Instead recite missed tasbih in

the second Sajdah. If Tasbih has been missed in last sajdah of second or fourth Rakah then you can recite the missed ones before Attahiyat in Qaidah.
5) If you miss a wajib in Salah and have to do Sajdah Sahaw. You dont have to recite Tasbih in Sajdah sahoo, since the 300 count has been estalished. But if you had

missed Tasbih in any of the postures and remeber it now. Then you may recite the missed Tasbih in Sajdah Sahaw now.
6) It is preferable to recite after Surah Fatiha Sura Takathuur in the first raka’, Surah Wal A’sr in the second raka’, Surah Kaferoon (qul ya aiyuhal Kafiroon) in the third

and Surah Akhlas (Qul hu Allah-hu ahd) in the fourth raka’. If one does not remember these surah they can recite the ones they prefer.

May Allah accept this dua’ (supplication) for the sake of the trustworthy PROPHET MOHAMMED (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him)

LAILATUL-QADR
Its excellence is great, since in this night the Noble Qur’aan was sent down, which leads one who clings to it, to the path of honour and nobility, and raises him to the

summit of distinction and everlasting life. The Muslims who adhere strictly to the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger SAW do not raise flags on this night, nor suspend

colourful decorations. Rather they vie in standing during it (Lailatul-Qadr) in Prayer out of sincere faith and hoping for reward. Here, O Muslim, are the Qur’aanic Aayaat

and authentic prophetic ahaadeeth referring to this night:

* Its excellence

As regards its excellence it is more than sufficient to mention that Lailatul-Qadr is better than a thousand months, He, the Mighty and Majestic, says:

” Verily! We have sent it (this Qur’aan) down in the Night of Decree (Lailatul-Qadr). And what will make you know what the Night of Decree is? The Night of Decree

is better than a thousand months. Therein descend the angels and the Rooh (i.e. Gabriel) by Allaah’s Permission with all Decrees, Peace! until the appearance of dawn.”

(Al-Qadr 97: 1-5)

And in it every decreed matter for the year is conveyed, He, the Most High says:

” We sent it (this Qur’aan) down on a blessed Night. Verily, We are ever warning (mankind of Our Torment). Therein (that Night) is decreed every matter of ordainment.

Amran (i.e. a command or this Qur’aan or His Decree of every matter) from Us. Verily, We are ever sending (the Messenger). (As) a Mercy from your Lord. Verily!

He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” (Ad-Dukhaan 44: 3-6)

* When is it?

It is reported from the Prophet SAW that it is within the twenty-first, twenty-third, twenty-fifth, twenty-seventh, twenty-ninth or the last night of Ramadhan.

Imaam ash-Shaafi’ee, rahimahullaah, said: To me it is as the Prophet SAW used to answer according to the question posed, it would be said to him: “Shall I seek it in such

and such night?” So he would reply: “Seek it in such and such night.” And Allaah knows best. (Reported from him by al-Baghawee in Sharhus-Sunnah)

The most correct saying is that it occurs in the odd nights of the last ten nights of Ramadhan and this is shown by the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah, RA, who said: “Allaah

Messenger SAW used to practice I’tikaaf in the last ten nights and say: ‘Seek out Lailatul-Qadr in the (odd nights) of the last ten days of Ramadhan.” (Bukhari, Muslim )

However if the servant is too weak or unable, then he should at least not let the last seven days pass him by, due to what is reported from ‘Ibn ‘Umar, who said: Allaah’s

Messenger SAW said: “Seek it in the last ten, and if one of you is too weak or unable then let him not allow that to make him miss the final seven.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

This explains his, SAW saying: “I see that your dreams are in agreement (that it is in the last seven) so he who wishes to seek it out then let him seek it in the last seven.”

(Bukhari)

It is also known from the Sunnah, that knowledge of the exact night upon which Lailatul-Qadr falls was taken up because the people argued, ‘Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit, RA

said: The Prophet SAW came out intending to tell us about Lailatul-Qadr, however two men were arguing and he said: “I came out to inform you about Lailatul-Qadr but

so and so, and, so and so were arguing, so it was raised up, and perhaps that is better for you, so seek it on the (twenty) ninth and (twenty) seventh and the (twenty)

fifth.” (Bukhari)

Some ahaadeeth indicate that Lailatul-Qadr is in the last ten nights, while others indicate that it is in the odd nights of the last ten, so the first are general and the second

more particular, and the particular has to be given priority over the general. Other ahaadeeth state that it is in the last seven – and these are restricted by mention of one

who is too weak or unable. So there is no confusion, all the ahaadeeth agree and are not contradictory.

In conclusion: The Muslim should seek out Lailatul-Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten: the night of the twenty-first (the night before the twenty-first day), the

twenty-third, the twenty-fifth, the twenty-seventh and the twenty-ninth. If he is too weak or unable to seek it out in all the odd nights, then let him seek it out in the odd

nights of the last seven: the night of the twenty-fifth, the twenty-seventh and the twenty-ninth. And Allaah knows best.

* How should a Muslim seek Lailatul-Qadr?

One who misses this blessed night then he has missed much good for no one misses it except one from whom it is withheld. Therefore it is recommended that the Muslim

who is eager to be obedient to Allaah should stand in Prayer during this night out of Eemaan and hoping for the great reward, since if he does this, Allaah will forgive his

previous sins.

He SAW said: “Whoever stands in (Prayer) in Lailatul-Qadr out of Eemaan and seeking reward then his previous sins are forgiven.” (Bukhari)

It is recommended to supplicate a great deal in it, it is reported from ‘Aa’ishah, RA that she said: “O Messenger of Allaah! What if I knew which night Lailatul-Qadr was,

then what should I say in it?” He said: “Say: Allaahumma innaka ‘affuwwun tuhibbul ‘afwa fa’fu ‘annee.” (O Allaah you are the one who pardons greatly, and loves to

pardon, so pardon me.) (at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)

O brother! You know the importance of this night, so stand in Prayer in the last ten nights, in worship, detaching oneself from the women, ordering your family with this,

and increasing in actions of obedience and worship in it.

From ‘Aa’ishah, RA who said: “The Prophet SAW used to tighten his waist-wrapper (izaar) – (meaning detached himself from his wives in order to worship, and exerted

himself in seeking Lailatul-Qadr), spend the night in worship, and wake the family in the last ten nights.” (Bukhari, Muslim)

From ‘Aa’ishah, RA: “Allaah’s Messenger SAW used to exert himself in the last ten nights more than he would at other times.” (Muslim)

* Its sign

[Many people believe in all sorts of superstitions about Lailatul-Qadr, and false beliefs from them are that the trees prostrate, and buildings sleep! And these things are

clearly futile and baseless.] Allaah’s Messenger SAW described the morning after Lailatul-Qadr, so that the Muslim may know which day it is. From Ubayy, RA who

said: that he SAW said: “On the morning following Lailatul-Qadr the sun rises not having any rays, as if it were a brass dish, until it rises up.” (Muslim, Abu Dawood,

at-Tarmidhi, Ibn Majah)

From Abu Hurairah, RA who said: “We were discussing Lailatul-Qadr in the presence of Allaah’s Messenger SAW, so he said: ‘Which of you remembers (the night)

when the moon arose and was like half a plate?'” (Muslim) [Qaadi ‘Iyaad said: “It contains an indication that it was towards the end of the month – since the moon does

not appear like that when it arises except towards the end of the month.”]

From Ibn ‘Abbaas, RA who said: Allaah’s Messenger SAW said: “Lailatul-Qadr is calm and pleasant, neither hot nor cold, the sun arises on its morning being feeble and

red.” (at-Tayaalisee, Ibn Khuzaimah, al-Bazzaar with hasan isnaad)

Let us seek abundance rewards from our Creator by performing extra actions in these last few days of the noble month of Ramadhan as it could be our last…